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kynurenine

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Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 31
Published: 02 August 2017
10.1159/000470807
EISBN: 978-3-318-06051-5
... cytokines activate the neurotoxic derivatives of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway. This results in the synthesis of the NMDA glutamate agonist, quinolinic acid, and kynurenine metabolites which initiate oxidative stress and insulin receptor resistance. As a consequence of these changes, combined...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Biological Psychiatry
Volume: 29
Published: 23 May 2014
10.1159/000358038
EISBN: 978-3-318-02600-9
... and Anxiety Metabolite association studies of anxiety in animal models and clinical cohorts have identified altered levels of a number of metabolites (table 1 ). Several studies have found associations for altered tryptophan metabolism - involving both the kynurenine as well as the serotonin pathways...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 31
Published: 02 August 2017
10.1159/000470802
EISBN: 978-3-318-06051-5
... markers of cellular immunity) is regularly found in schizophrenia, e.g., increased levels of cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Moreover, the tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism is regulated via pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and is closely related to the glutamatergic neurotransmission. Certain...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Biological Psychiatry
Volume: 30
Published: 19 October 2015
10.1159/000434746
EISBN: 978-3-318-05584-9
... autoimmune factors, infections, traumatic brain injury, and stress. Downstream factors potentially mediating the effects of inflammation include molecules of the kynurenine pathway, which are known to modulate neuroinflammation and glutamate neurotransmission. The following could contribute to an important...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 31
Published: 02 August 2017
EISBN: 978-3-318-06051-5
... and Alzheimer's disease: biology and pathophysiology in mice and men. Curr Alzheimer Res 2010;7:113-125. 54. Lapin IP, Oxenkrug GF: Intensification of the central serotoninergic processes as a possible determinant of the thymoleptic affect. Lancet 1969;1:132-136. 55. Lapin IP: Kynurenines as probable...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 27
Published: 17 November 2010
10.1159/000319504
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9606-0
...-inflammatory cytokines enhance the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. In addition to the resulting decrease in the synthesis of brain serotonin, this leads to the formation of neurotoxins such as the glutamate agonist quinolinic acid and contributes to the increase in apoptosis of astrocytes...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Biological Psychiatry
Volume: 29
Published: 23 May 2014
EISBN: 978-3-318-02600-9
...: Downregulated kynurenine 3-monooxygenase gene expression and enzyme activity in schizophrenia and genetic association with schizophrenia endophenotypes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011;68:665-674. 40. Maes M, Mihaylova I, Ruyter MD, Kubera M, Bosmans E: The immune effects of TRYCATs (tryptophan catabolites along...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 28
Published: 27 February 2013
10.1159/000343968
EISBN: 978-3-318-02311-4
... by the interaction between certain cytokines and the metabolites from tryptophan catabolism, the neuroactive kynurenines, which is partly influenced by corticosteroid action plays an important role in several neurotransmissions such as serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmissions and receptor functions...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 28
Published: 27 February 2013
EISBN: 978-3-318-02311-4
... hippocampal neurons. J Neurochem 2002;83:1441-1451 99. Nair A, Bonneau RH: Stress-induced elevation of glucocorticoids increases microglia proliferation through NMDA receptor activation. J Neuroimmunol 2006;171:72-85 100. Myint AM: Kynurenines: from the perspective of major psychiatric disorders. FEBS...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 31
Published: 02 August 2017
10.1159/000470805
EISBN: 978-3-318-06051-5
... activity, including oxidative stress and kynurenine pathway activation, will also be discussed, albeit briefly. We will conclude by providing a mechanistic model that draws upon our previous research, to link neuroimmune/neurotransmitter dysregulation to disrupted local neural activity and brain network...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 28
Published: 27 February 2013
10.1159/000346085
EISBN: 978-3-318-02311-4
.... Several lines of evidence have emerged suggesting that inflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology of suicide. Basic and clinical data indicate that the effects of inflammation on mood and behavior are likely to be mediated by the kynurenine pathway metabolites and glutamatergic neurotransmission...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Biological Psychiatry
Volume: 30
Published: 19 October 2015
EISBN: 978-3-318-05584-9
.... 16. Raison CL, et al: Activation of central nervous system inflammatory pathways by interferon-α: relationship to monoamines and depression. Biol Psychiatry 2009;65:296-303. 17. Raison CL, et al: CSF concentrations of brain tryptophan and kynurenines during immune stimulation with IFN-α...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 31
Published: 02 August 2017
10.1159/000470811
EISBN: 978-3-318-06051-5
.... 1 ). Fig. 1 The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway that links depression with chronic low-grade inflammation. IDO, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in spleen, blood, kidney, and brain; TDO, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase in liver; 1 =, kynureninase; 2, kynurenine oxygenase; 3, kynurenine aminotransferase...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 31
Published: 02 August 2017
EISBN: 978-3-318-06051-5
..., Bruno JP, Muchowski PJ, Wu HQ: Kynurenines in the mammalian brain: when physiology meets pathology. Nat Rev Neurosci 2012;13:465-477. 9. Dalmau J, Lancaster E, Martinez-Hernandez E, Rosenfeld MR, Balice-Gordon R: Clinical experience and laboratory investigations in patients with anti-NMDAR...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 30
Published: 28 September 2015
10.1159/000435930
EISBN: 978-3-318-05574-0
... and humoral processes are involved in the coordination of the physiological, immunological and behavioural responses [ 14 ]. Figure 3 summarises the bidirectional pathways between the immune, endocrine and neurotransmitter systems. Fig. 3 The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway that links depression, pain...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 31
Published: 02 August 2017
10.1159/000470810
EISBN: 978-3-318-06051-5
...-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), leading to altered tryptophan metabolism to favor kynurenine and its subsequent conversion to quinolinic acid (QUIN), an NMDAR agonist, and kynurenic acid (KYNA), an NMDAR antagonist. In psychosis, multiple studies have demonstrated a shift towards the KYNA...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 31
Published: 02 August 2017
EISBN: 978-3-318-06051-5
... ischemic brain injury. Exp Neurol 2008;214:144-146. 68. Brown GC, Vilalta A: How microglia kill neurons. Brain Res 2015;1628:288-297. 69. Schwarcz R, Bruno JP, Muchowski PJ, Wu HQ: Kynurenines in the mammalian brain: when physiology meets pathology. Nat Rev Neurosci 2012;13:465-477. 70. Dantzer...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 27
Published: 17 November 2010
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9606-0
...-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones in the mouse brain. Psychopharmacology 1995;118:267-272 39. Myint A-M, Kim Y-K, Verkerk R, et al: Kynurenine pathway in major depression: evidence of impaired neuroprotection. J Affect Disord 2007;98:143-151 40. Meijer OC, De Kloet ER: Corticosterone and serotonergic...
Book Chapter
Series: Key Issues in Mental Health
Volume: 179
Published: 01 December 2014
10.1159/000365542
EISBN: 978-3-318-02604-7
... neurotransmission, mediated via NMDA antagonism, is a key mechanism in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia [ 65 ]. Kynurenic acid, the only NMDA receptor antagonist known to occur naturally in the human CNS [ 66 ], is one of at least three neuroactive intermediate products of the kynurenine pathway...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 28
Published: 27 February 2013
EISBN: 978-3-318-02311-4
... subjugates the brain. Nature Rev Neurosci 2008;9:46-57 54. Myint A-M, Kim Y-K, Verkerk R, et al: Kynurenine pathway in major depression: evidence of impaired neuroprotection. J Affect Dis 2007;98:143-151 55. Schwarcz RT: The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation as a drug target. Curr Opin...