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Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446009
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Chronic pruritus has diverse forms of presentation and can appear not only on normal skin [International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) classification group II], but also in the company of dermatoses (IFSI classification group I). Scratching, a natural reflex, begins in response...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446010
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... in the community and in specific populations is an important measure for the purpose of health planning as well as for the understanding of associations between disease and factors in the environment. Itch is definitely the most frequent symptom of the skin and can occur in acute and chronic skin diseases...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446011
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract This chapter summarizes recent findings regarding the central transmission of acute and chronic itch. Itch is transduced by cutaneous pruriceptors that transmit signals to neurons in the superficial spinal cord. Spinal itch-signaling circuits utilize several neuropeptides whose...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446012
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
..., such as allergens, that otherwise come in contact with the skin. Endogenous stimuli include components of or mediators derived from the epidermal barrier, keratinocytes, mast cells, and additional resident and skin-homing immune cells. The sensation of itch is ultimately provoked by mediators that interact...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446013
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract A complex and multifactorial pathogenesis of itch makes the proper diagnosis of underlying disease a difficult and challenging clinical problem. The examination of every patient with itch should be started by gathering an accurate history. During the anamnesis it is important to obtain...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446014
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Measurement of itch intensity is essential to properly evaluate pruritic disease severity, to understand the patients' needs and burden, and especially to assess treatment efficacy, particularly in clinical trials. However, measurement of itch remains a challenge, as, per definition...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446039
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446044
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Background: Physical therapies refer to non-medical treatment strategies, including surgery, cryotherapy, UV phototherapy, and acupuncture. Most physical approaches are inappropriate in the context of itch. UV phototherapy and acupuncture may be effective in the management of itch...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446045
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract A relationship between the intensity of itch and psychological factors like stress, coping, anxiety, and depression has often been shown in patients with skin diseases. Moreover, the biopsychosocial model of chronic itch nicely summarizes how psychological factors can contribute...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446046
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... the pathophysiological mechanisms they target. Pruritus: A Symptom of Many Diseases Dermatological, neurological, and systemic conditions may cause itch. Different pathological mechanisms are involved in each disease and thus pruritus management differs according to its origin [ 1 ]. Recent randomized clinical...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446047
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Urticaria is a common skin disorder defined by the occurrence of itchy and even painful wheals, angioedema, or both. The lifetime prevalence for its acute and chronic form is 20 and 1%, respectively. The patients' quality of life is impaired because of itch, disfigurement, and high...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446048
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) suffer from chronic inflammatory dermatitis and antihistamine-resistant itch. The management of intractable pruritus in AD is important, requiring the development of new therapeutic approaches. At present, the standard treatments for AD include...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446050
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease observed in about 1-3% of the general population. About 60-90% of patients with psoriasis suffer from itching. Interestingly, in the past itch was not considered as an important symptom of psoriasis. Despite the high frequency...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446051
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Itch management can be particularly complicated in some small areas like the scalp or the anogenital region for many reasons: the frequently poor diagnosis of the causes of itch in these areas, the dense innervation of these areas, and the symbolic value of these areas for the human...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446053
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Neurologic itch is defined as pruritus resulting from any dysfunction of the nervous system. Itch arising due to a neuroanatomic pathology is seen to be neuropathic. Causes of neuropathic itch range from localized entrapment of a peripheral nerve to generalized degeneration of small...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446055
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Pruritus is a bothersome and prevalent symptom reported by patients suffering from both cutaneous and extracutaneous diseases. Psychogenic pruritus, also referred to as functional itch disorder, is a distinct clinical entity. According to the definition proposed by the French...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446056
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Uremic itch is a frequent and sometimes very tormenting symptom in patients with advanced or end-stage renal failure, with a strong negative impact on the quality of life. According to a representative study, the point prevalence of chronic itch is 25% in hemodialysis patients but may...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446057
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Cholestatic itch is a feature of numerous hepatobiliary disorders such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, the inherited form of cholestasis, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Although undervalued by physicians, cholestatic itch can be a source...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 50
Published: 01 September 2016
10.1159/000446060
EISBN: 978-3-318-05889-5
... Abstract Paraneoplastic itch occurs as the result of a systemic reaction to an underlying malignancy. Paraneoplastic itch is most commonly associated with lymphoproliferative malignancies and solid tumors that result in cholestasis. Paraneoplastic itch may occur in the absence of a primary rash...