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Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 36
Published: 10 September 2008
10.1159/000224635
EISBN: 978-3-8055-8656-6
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Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 55
Published: 29 November 2021
10.1159/000517635
EISBN: 978-3-318-06608-1
... and the environment. Worldwide environmental monitoring data demonstrate that UV filters reach aquatic environments through two main input sources – direct (i.e., washoff from swimmers/bathers) and indirect (i.e., incomplete wastewater treatment removal) – and can be taken up by various algal, plant, and animal...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 65
Published: 22 January 2007
10.1159/000098849
EISBN: 978-3-318-01343-6
... application with permeation and diffusion through the round window membraneor by intracochlear application with direct infusion into the inner ear via acochleostomy. Threshold and input/output functions of compound action potentials (CAPs)were determined before and after application of the corticosteroid. We...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 30
Published: 28 September 2015
10.1159/000435938
EISBN: 978-3-318-05574-0
... afferent nociceptive input to the brain. The underlying mechanisms of the various emotional and cognitive modulatory influences may partly overlap, but also have some unique aspects. What becomes clear is that pain is not merely a reflection of the nociceptive input, but should be considered as a complex...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 34
Published: 23 April 2014
10.1159/000356422
EISBN: 978-3-318-02568-2
... inputs (e.g. between the encoding and the retrieval). By this they form the basis of a feeling of familiarity, but also might encode the commonalities between these different inputs. However, a more complete picture of the importance of the hippocampus for declarative memories can only be drawn when...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 34
Published: 23 April 2014
10.1159/000357026
EISBN: 978-3-318-02568-2
..., or more simply, they represent a clock [ 2 , 3 ]. Imagine that all neurons within a local network experience synchronous synaptic inputs. As a consequence, they will follow the same cycles of depolarization (excitation) and hyperpolarization (the simplest form of synaptic inhibition). Their probability...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 45
Published: 27 May 2021
10.1159/000514961
EISBN: 978-3-318-06844-3
... Abstract The discovery of the hypocretins/orexins (HCRTs) has revolutionized sleep science in the last two decades. A combination of anatomical tracing methods, optogenetics, and pharmacology is delineating a blueprint of functional inputs and outputs of the HCRT system. Here, we discuss...