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hyponatremia

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Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493216
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... In almost 2 decades since the onset of the 21st century, there has been an explosion in interest in hyponatremia, which has resulted in a marked increase in the number of publications on the topic. This is remarkable as there is no evidence that the incidence or prevalence of the condition...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493234
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract Hyponatremia is a frequently encountered clinical finding, and by far the most common disorder of electrolyte and water homeostasis throughout the world. Given the complex pathophysiology of hyponatremia as well as its clinical implications, which range from apparently asymptomatic...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493235
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract In hypotonic hyponatremia, which is the most common form of hyponatremia, clinical manifestations are largely due to brain swelling caused by entry of water into the cells. In acute and severe hyponatremia, dramatic symptoms, such as seizures, acute psychosis, permanent brain damage...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493237
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract Chronic hyponatremia may not cause overt symptoms, and therefore frequently remains untreated. More recently, growing evidence indicate that this condition is not benign, and can lead to unsteady gait, deterioration of bone mass and strength, increased fragility, and increased all...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493238
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract Euvolemic hyponatremia is the most common cause of hyponatremia in both hospitalized patients and outpatients. The most common etiology of euvolemic hyponatremia is the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD). Diagnosis of SIAD involves evaluation of a set of long-standing...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493239
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract Hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte deficiency in clinical practice. Of the many causes of hyponatremia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) is the commonest. Glucocorticoid deficiency, due to central/secondary adrenal insufficiency, is the key differential diagnosis...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493240
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract The etiology of hyponatremia is often multifactorial. The most common causes include hypovolemia from gastrointestinal (GI) or other fluid losses, thiazide diuretics, and SIAD [<citeref rid="ref1">1</citeref>]. In this chapter, we will discuss hypovolemic hyponatremia...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493241
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract Hyponatremia is a frequent complication in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis can develop two types of hyponatremia, hypovolemic or hypervolemic (dilutional) hyponatremia. Hypervolemic hyponatremia is the most common type and it develops as a consequence...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493242
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract Heart failure (HF) represents the most common cause of hypervolemic hyponatremia in current clinical practice. The presence of hyponatremia has been independently associated with worse outcomes in this patient population. The pathogenesis of hyponatremia in HF involves complex...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493243
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract A time-dependent loss of cell solute protects against lethal cerebral edema in hyponatremia. This adaptation, which makes survival possible when the serum sodium concentration is extremely low, also makes the brain vulnerable to injury if chronic (>48 hours) hyponatremia...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493244
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract Hyponatremia is a frequent occurrence in patients with neurosurgical disorders. Acute onset hyponatremia is particularly common in patients who have any type of cerebral insult, including traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and brain tumors. Furthermore, it is a common...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493245
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract Hyponatremia is frequent in cancer patients and potentially deleterious. Cancer patients have specific requirements due to the nature and treatment of their disease, which can directly impact the occurrence and severity of hyponatremia, and limit treatment choices. Although essential...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493246
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract In clinical practice, several medications such as diuretics, psychotropic drugs, and anticonvulsants have been reported to be a frequent cause of hyponatremia. Drugs may cause hyponatremia either by affecting the homeostasis of sodium and water (e.g., diuretics) or by altering...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493247
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) refers to below-normal serum sodium concentrations [Na + ] that develop during exercise. The pathogenesis of EAH is best described as a spectrum ranging between profound polydipsia to modest sweat sodium losses with hypovolemia and relative...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493248
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Abstract Numerous observational studies have confirmed that inadequate investigation of hyponatremia leads to diagnostic errors and incorrect treatment. In fact, only one out of five patients diagnosed as having syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) have had all the tests necessary...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493249
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... Despite the many advances made in understanding the manifestations and consequences of hyponatremia, and the availability of effective pharmacologic therapies for the treatment of hyponatremia, it is obvious that we do not yet have a uniformly accepted consensus on how and when this disorder...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-06383-7
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 28
Published: 21 December 2010
10.1159/isbn.978-3-8055-9592-6
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9592-6
Book Chapter
Book Chapter