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Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480177
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... Abstract In the majority of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), glucose tolerance normalizes shortly after pregnancy. Nevertheless, GDM is one of the strongest predictors of subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which will develop in around half of the women with previous GDM...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480178
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... Abstract Up to 16.2% of pregnant women have some form of hyperglycemia, and an estimated 85% of them are due to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Usually, the impairment of glucose tolerance in GDM is the result of relative insulin deficiency not due to autoimmune mechanisms. But autoimmune...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480166
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... Abstract For the risk of maternal and fetal complications, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requires strict care. When lifestyle intervention (i.e., nutritional medical therapy and physical activity) is not effective in keeping blood glucose at target, a pharmacological treatment is needed...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480164
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... Abstract The evolution of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis starts at the 1960s. Since then it has been the focus of ongoing debate, regarding questions such as – when, how and who to screen? What is the most appropriate diagnostic procedure? What cutoffs to diagnose GDM? By far...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480176
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... ). Fig. 1. Maternal diabetes in pregnancy influences the offspring health from fetus to adult life. Maternal hyperglycemia causes intrauterine hyperglycemia which affects the growing fetus leading to adverse metabolic outcomes later in life. BMI, body mass index; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 60
Published: 15 September 2014
10.1159/000357340
EISBN: 978-3-318-02577-4
... Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as ‘carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy'. GDM is associated with several detrimental health consequences during pregnancy and delivery for both mother...
Book Chapter
Series: Endocrine Development
Volume: 31
Published: 27 January 2016
10.1159/000439413
EISBN: 978-3-318-05639-6
... Abstract Based on the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study, new universal screening recommendations and cut-offs for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been proposed. In addition to the immediate perinatal risk, GDM carries an increased risk of metabolic disease in the mother...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480161
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... Abstract Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder of pregnancy. Women affected by diabetes in pregnancy fall into 1 of 2 broad diagnostic categories – pregestational (including type 1 and type 2 diabetes) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The International Diabetes Federation...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480174
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... and the most important international societies recommendations concerning labor and delivery in patients with diabetes. Introduction One of the main controversies regarding gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) management is the correct time for delivery. In fact, patients with GDM could have a variety...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480163
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... secondary outcomes including fetal adiposity and preeclampsia. In general, the association of maternal BMI with these outcomes tended to “plateau” in the highest categories, whereas that of glucose was still increasing [ 13 ]. The combined associations of BMI and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480180
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... that cannot be answered with traditional medicine and traditional scientific investigation tools. For instance, there is no international uniformity regarding the assessment and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) [ 2 ]. Thus, the availability of biomarkers that would predict GDM would...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-06612-8
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480171
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... of studies on placental tissue from normal and GDM pregnancies using OMICS technologies. We also summarize the most recent developments in the field of liquid biopsies to recover placental derived molecules from maternal blood. A primary focus is on placental exosomes, which are special vesicles released...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000501981
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
..., and this is due mostly to the increase of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and of obesity that is a very high risk factor for the development of GDM and type 2 diabetes. Optimal health care before and during pregnancy is mandatory to prevent birth defects and other health problems, and to reach this aim...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 29
Published: 31 August 2020
10.1159/000506548
EISBN: 978-3-318-06734-7
..., with the aim of exploring how far the understanding and management of this condition have come. Many renowned experts have shaped this field; limitation of space only allows us to mention a few of them. Hyperglycemia in pregnancy can be classified into two types: (1) gestational diabetes (GDM; glucose...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 85
Published: 25 April 2016
10.1159/000439487
EISBN: 978-3-318-05643-3
... of later diabetes and cardiovascular disease. If they become pregnant again, they enter pregnancy at a higher weight status, reigniting this cycle. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), both more common among obese women, are associated with obesity in the next...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series: Clinical & Performance Program
Volume: 11
Published: 14 August 2006
10.1159/000094449
EISBN: 978-3-318-01329-0
... Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common medical complication of pregnancyis increasing in prevalence among all populations in parallel with the globalincrease in obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Although controversy regardingthe perinatal consequences of GDM continues...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480173
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... on the placentation process and contribute to an increased risk in developing PE and obstetric complications. The most significant clinical risk factors for PE in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients are first trimester obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, GDM diagnosis prior to 20 weeks’ gestation...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480175
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... women [ 2 ]. In Asia, approximately 1 diabetic patient out of 5 is diagnosed before age 40 [ 3 ]. Hyperglycemia in pregnancy (HIP) can be due to preexisting diabetes continuing during pregnancy or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), that is, occurring during pregnancy [ 4 ]. In a large proportion (up...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 28
Published: 03 January 2020
10.1159/000480165
EISBN: 978-3-318-06612-8
... to the developing fetus. So, during pregnancy a worsening of insulin sensitivity with an increase in glucose and lipids levels and a reduction of proteins are observed. Diabetic pregnancies include 2 conditions: gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a condition diagnosed during pregnancy and characterized...