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endotoxin

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Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/000315924
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
... Abstract Endotoxin activity (EA) plays an essential role in sepsis syndrome pathogenesis. There has been considerable interest in measuring and removing EA to predict and improve the morbidity and mortality of patients with sepsis. We performed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of EA...
Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 200
Published: 07 August 2023
10.1159/000527708
EISBN: 978-3-318-07124-5
... Abstract In the fields of sepsis and systemic inflammation, endotoxin might be the most studied molecule since the term was coined by Richard Pfeiffer in 1892. Paradoxically measuring endotoxin in humans and finding an effective treatment for endotoxemia have remained challenging. While...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/000315914
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
... and disease that has hampered the conduct of clinical trials is nicely exemplified in the host response to endotoxin. Endotoxemia occurs in many patients with sepsis, but also in many clinical settings that are noninfectious in nature. Moreover, the biologic behavior of endotoxin resembles that of a hormone...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/000315916
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
... Abstract Several signs and symptoms in sepsis are due to the presence of endotoxin in the circulation. Both in animal and human models, there is an evident immunological response to the endotoxin insult. Furthermore, altered cardiovascular function, lung dysfunction and acute kidney injury...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/000315917
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
... Abstract Endotoxin, which consists of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is an outer membrane component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall. Endotoxin in the blood stream from an infectious focus or through translocation from the gut plays an important role in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/000315918
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
... Abstract The outer leaflet of Gram-negative bacteria membrane contains a great amount of lipopolysaccharides, also known as endotoxins, which play a central role in the pathogenesis of septic shock. It has been demonstrated that the polymyxin B (PMB) molecule has both antibacterial...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/000315919
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
... Abstract The removal of blood endotoxins with the Toraymyxin extracorporeal sorption device exploits the capability of immobilized polymyxin B (PMB) to bind endotoxins stably with a high specificity. Although adsorption is a molecular-scale mechanism, it involves hydrodynamic phenomena...
Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/000315921
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
... Abstract Sepsis involves a complex interaction between bacterial toxins and the host immune system. Endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis producing proinflammatory cytokines and activating the complement system...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/000315922
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
... Abstract Polymyxin B fiber column is a medical device designed to reduce blood endotoxin levels in sepsis. Gram-negative-induced abdominal sepsis is likely to be associated with high circulating endotoxin. In June 2009, the EUPHAS study (Early Use of Polymyxin B Hemoperfusion in Abdominal...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/000315923
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
... Abstract Background: We evaluated the ability of the endotoxin activity (EA) assay to determine the need for early intervention for endotoxemia using polymyxin B-based hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) on septic patients. Methods: Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Eleven patients had a high EA...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/000315925
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
... cartridges used, the selection of subjects based on likelihood of endotoxin presence without endotoxin measurement, and small sample sizes in mainly single-center trials have also been cited. The newly designed EUPHRATES trial (Evaluating Use of Polymyxin Hemoperfusion in a Randomized Controlled Trial...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/000315926
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
... Abstract Since 1994, a polystyrene fiber cartridge used for extracorporeal hemoperfusion, to which polymyxin B is bound and immobilized, has been used in septic patients in order to absorb and remove circulating lipopolysaccharide, thereby neutralizing the effects of this endotoxin...
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Book Cover Image
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 167
Published: 02 June 2010
10.1159/isbn.978-3-8055-9485-1
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9485-1
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 156
Published: 10 May 2007
10.1159/000102087
EISBN: 978-3-318-01456-3
... patients. The relative merits of endotoxin measurement, interleukin-6 levelsand a variety of other sepsis markers are reviewed. Full implementation of these biomarkersmay improve diagnostic accuracy over the standard clinical criteria for sepsis. ...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Microbiology
Volume: 12
Published: 30 September 2004
10.1159/000081687
EISBN: 978-3-318-01116-6
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