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endothelin

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Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328678
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract Endothelin (ET)-1 is the major isoform in the human kidney where it interacts with two G protein-coupled receptors, ET A and ET B . It contains high densities of ET receptors, but in contrast to most other peripheral organs, the majority (70%) are of the ET B subtype and largely have...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328164
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract The therapeutic implications of the actions of endothelin (ET)-1 upon renal and cardiovascular function are evident. Among other diseases, ET-1 is recognized to be involved in hypertension and renal failure and, in a rush to develop novel treatments, has been extensively studied...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328720
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract The endothelin (ET) system comprises a family of three isopeptides (ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3)involved in diverse physiological and pathophysiological events. ET-1 is the major renal peptide that exerts its biological activity by binding to ET A and ET B receptors. Both ET A and ET B...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328680
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract Endothelins (ETs), and particularly ET-1, activate a complex network of interconnected signaling cascades in mesangial glomerular cells, which play an important role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the glomerulus. Excessive stimulation of ET-1 production by mesangial cells...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328684
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract Human essential hypertension and rodent genetic hypertension are associated with increased sodium transport in the renal proximal tubule and medullary thick ascending limb of Henle. The proximal tubule, which secretes endothelin (ET), expresses the ET B receptor. Low (nM...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328686
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle reabsorbs 20–30% of filtered sodium chloride (NaCl) and generates the osmotic gradient necessary for water absorption in the distal nephron. It is second only to the collecting duct as a source of renal endothelin (ET)-1, which inhibits...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328687
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract The renal collecting duct (CD) produces and binds more endothelin (ET)-1 than any other region of the kidney. ET-1 has the potential to act as an autocrine regulator of CD function since ET-1 is secreted abluminally and ET receptors are located primarily on the basolateral side...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328688
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... increases in ARNA. The physiologic importance of the dietary-induced changes in the RSNA-mediated increases in ARNA is underlined by salt-sensitive hypertension in rats lacking afferent renal innervation. Endothelin (ET), ET A receptors (R), and ET B -R are present in the renal pelvic wall. ET plays...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328692
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract The identification of patients at increased risk for chronic kidney disease offers the potential to prevent or delay end-stage renal disease and the associated cardiovascular events. Data from recently completed controlled clinical trials of endothelin (ET) receptor blockers confirmed...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328695
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... therapeutic approaches which alone or in combination with standard therapy have the potential to prevent or delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy, thus improving kidney and patient survival. Among others, endothelin (ET) receptor blockers have emerged as a potential therapeutic option that operates...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000329054
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract The mechanism(s) of the endothelin (ET) and reactive oxygen species pathways in conjunction with the nitric oxide (NO) pathway that promote and/or blunt the progression of diabetic kidney disease have been the focus of many laboratories’ efforts to reveal new therapeutic targets...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328696
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract Over the years, a very large amount of evidence has accumulated indicating that endothelin (ET)-1 is an important stimulus for inflammation. This is true for a wide range of organ system diseases, including chronic kidney disease. Nonetheless, our understanding of the role...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328697
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
.... Endothelin (ET)-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide with proinflammatory, mitogenic, and profibrotic effects, and it contributes to both normal renal physiology and pathology. There is robust experimental and clinical evidence for the role of ET-1and its cognate receptors in many progressive renal...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328699
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... and destruction of this organ through active endothelin (ET)-1 production and signals. High ET-1 urinary output in SCD subjects at steady state may reflect increased tubular activation of ET-1 production acting on the collecting duct thereby favoring the constant hyposthenuria. Chronically, augmented ET-1...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328701
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... have demonstrated marked intrafamilial phenotypic variability in PKD1 or PKD2 pedigrees, indicating the importance of nonallelic factors such as genetic modifying loci in determining individual phenotype. Endothelin (ET)-1 exerts multiple and often opposing effects on different aspects of renal...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328702
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract Endothelin (ET)-1 is a powerful mitogen and vasoconstrictor that contributes to cardiovascular and renal pathologies. In the kidney, ET causes vasoconstriction, sodium retention, mesangial cell inflammation and proliferation, hypertrophy of glomerular capillaries, and podocyte injury...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328988
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... include the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, and (more recently) the endothelin (ET) system. To date, several clinical trials have assessed the effects of ET antagonism, both selective and nonselective, on BP control in humans. The nonselective ET antagonist bosentan...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 172
Published: 01 September 2011
10.1159/000328703
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9795-1
... Abstract Diabetic nephropathy constitutes a major health care challenge. In the current review we summarize the rationale and preclinical data that suggest involvement of the endothelin (ET) system in the pathogenesis of this complication of diabetes. Early clinical studies suggest...