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Book Chapter
Published: 31 December 1984
10.1159/000409345
EISBN: 978-3-318-05426-2
Book Chapter
Volume: 1
Published: 15 April 1982
10.1159/000407539
EISBN: 978-3-318-05381-4
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 47
Published: 30 June 2016
10.1159/000445177
EISBN: 978-3-318-05869-7
... Abstract Over the past few years, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has focused its efforts on detecting not only small prohibited molecules, but also larger endogenous molecules such as hormones, in the view of implementing an endocrinological module in the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000460680
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract The fight against doping in sport as we know it today commenced by the creation of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission in 1961 following the death of a Danish cyclist during the Rome Olympic Games the year before. After a slow start, the fight got under way...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-06044-7
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 54
Published: 21 August 2009
10.1159/000235703
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9028-0
... in their quest for improved performance. Genetic manipulation in the context of athletic performance is commonly referred to as gene doping. Methods: A review of the literature was performed to identify the genes and methodologies most likely to be used for gene doping and the technologies that might be used...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000460681
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract This chapter addresses both the development and substance of the World Anti-Doping Code, which came into effect in 2003, as well as the subsequent Code amendments, which came into effect in 2009 and 2015. Through an extensive process of stakeholder input and collaboration, the World...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000460702
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract The most important element in achieving athlete compliance with anti-doping rules is the certainty of detection. Thus, scientific research plays a mission critical role in achieving clean competition. Many factors contribute to the advances in detection. Incremental advances...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000460701
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract The challenges facing modern anti-doping analytical science are increasingly complex given the expansion of target drug substances, as the pharmaceutical industry introduces more novel therapeutic compounds and the internet offers designer drugs to improve performance. The technical...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000460723
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract Traditionally, research in anti-doping has been stimulated by the need for technological improvements to accommodate the expansion of the list of prohibited substances and methods. Nevertheless, in recent years, anti-doping found itself at a crossroads due to the increasing complexity...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000460725
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract The pillars of anti-doping are detection, deterrence, and prevention. Detection takes the form of testing for banned substances. Deterrence builds on testing and gathering evidence. Athletes who test positive are exposed to penalties. The main tool of prevention is education. Education...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000460748
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the philosophical and ethical underpinnings of anti-doping policy. The nature of sport and its gratuitous logic is explored. The doping rules in sport, such as the Prohibited List, are ways of drawing a line to facilitate...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 59
Published: 17 October 2012
10.1159/000341970
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9993-1
... Abstract Despite ongoing improvements to regulatory and manufacturing guidelines, the potential for contaminated nutritional supplements to cause a failed doping test for an athlete remains a concern. Several surveys of supplements available through the internet and at retail have confirmed...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000465456
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... “gene doping” and discuss the current reality concerning gene- and cell-based physical enhancement strategies. The technological progress in the field of gene therapy will be illustrated, and the recent clinical progress as well as technological difficulties will be highlighted. Comparing...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000470919
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), blood manipulations such as the use of recombinant human erythropoietin and blood transfusions are a well-known method used by athletes to enhance performance. Direct detection of illicit blood manipulation has been...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000460682
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract In the fight against doping, creating a level playing field across all sports is very challenging from a legal perspective. A harmonized approach presupposes first and foremost a supreme regulatory authority on a global level. This task cannot be attributed to the public sector...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000460724
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract Prior to the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the fight against doping in sport was not unified; instead, it relied on individual approaches established by various stakeholders to make it effective. The scandal of the Festina Affair, during the Tour de France 1998...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000460722
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract For decades, drug testing has been the main instrument at the disposal of anti-doping authorities. The availability in the 1980s of substances identical to those produced by the human body, including the “big 3” (erythropoietin, testosterone, and growth hormone), necessitated a new...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 61
Published: 16 June 2016
10.1159/000445241
EISBN: 978-3-318-03011-2
... negative for doping substances at the Anti-Doping Laboratories, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana (FMSI) and Anti-Doping Lab Qatar (ADLQ), using Illumina genotyping technologies. Examining genotype frequency distribution of elite athletes from European countries (where most of the FMSI samples...
Book Chapter
Series: Medicine and Sport Science
Volume: 62
Published: 19 June 2017
10.1159/000460749
EISBN: 978-3-318-06044-7
... Abstract Clarity about the ethical justification of anti-doping is essential. In its absence, critics multiply and confusion abounds. Three broad reasons are typically offered in anti-doping's defense: to protect athletes' health; to promote fairness; and to preserve meaning and values in sport...