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Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 29
Published: 31 August 2020
10.1159/000506549
EISBN: 978-3-318-06734-7
... Abstract Oskar Minkowski was nominated six times for the Nobel Prize. He can be called the “grandfather of the discovery of insulin” since in 1889 he discovered that the removal of the pancreas in dogs induced diabetes mellitus. The presentation of this discovery together with his senior...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 29
Published: 31 August 2020
10.1159/000506544
EISBN: 978-3-318-06734-7
... Abstract The discovery of insulin in Toronto in 1921/1922 was rapidly recognized by a Nobel Prize shared by Dr. Frederick Banting and Prof. John Macleod. However, in the popular imagination it is attributed to “Banting and Best.” Here we review the important individual and collective...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 29
Published: 31 August 2020
10.1159/000506561
EISBN: 978-3-318-06734-7
... Abstract In 1993, Michael Bliss, Professor of History, University of Toronto, denounced “the Banting and Best Myth,” invented by Charles Best after F.G. Banting’s death in 1941, as an alternative version of the history of insulin discovery, with the message that “Banting and Best discovered...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 29
Published: 31 August 2020
10.1159/000506558
EISBN: 978-3-318-06734-7
... Abstract The development of antidiabetic agents prior to 2000 was largely the result of fortuitous discovery coupled with insightful clinical acumen. Many years intervened between the chance discovery and the development of marketable clinically important products. The first hint...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 29
Published: 31 August 2020
10.1159/000506555
EISBN: 978-3-318-06734-7
... and pathophysiology. The saga of glucagon and glucagon-related peptides is briefly reviewed here. The Discovery of Glucagon In 1921, when Banting and Best tested their first pancreatic extracts in depancreatized dogs, they noticed that a mild but reproducible hyperglycemia preceded the hoped-for hypoglycemic...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 44
Published: 20 May 2019
10.1159/000494938
EISBN: 978-3-318-06463-6
... with an account of Gall’s cortical localization theory, which set the stage. It then describes the discoveries themselves, reviews how the differences were explained, and concludes with a summary of further developments. Introduction In the long history of neuropsychology, a key advance and, today...
Book Chapter
Series: Endocrine Development
Volume: 28
Published: 11 June 2015
10.1159/000380988
EISBN: 978-3-318-05467-5
... recently been identified. The stories of the discovery of these hormones have constituted a series of complex journeys that have been undertaken over the past century or so, none of which has yet been completed. The complexities of bone and calcium metabolism have been and remain, to many people, somewhat...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers in Diabetes
Volume: 23
Published: 15 September 2014
10.1159/000362468
EISBN: 978-3-318-02700-6
... of pancreatic agenesis is likely to be the first of many new discoveries enabled by exome or genome sequencing. Introduction to Monogenic Diabetes Monogenic diabetes is caused by a mutation in a single gene. There are two main subtypes, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and neonatal diabetes...
Book Chapter
Series: Chemical Immunology and Allergy
Volume: 100
Published: 27 May 2014
10.1159/000358621
EISBN: 978-3-318-02195-0
... Abstract Immunoglobulin E (IgE) was discovered in 1967. Today, more than 40 years after the discovery, the normal beneficial function in the body of this enigmatic immunoglobulin still remains unclear. However, ever since the discovery new knowledge about allergic diseases and allergens, new...
Book Chapter
Series: Chemical Immunology and Allergy
Volume: 100
Published: 27 May 2014
10.1159/000358740
EISBN: 978-3-318-02195-0
... of gastric acid secretion and in allergic disorders. Using selective agonists and antagonists, as well as molecular biology tools, four histamine receptors (H 1 R, H 2 R, H 3 R and H 4 R) have been identified. The Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Daniel Bovet in 1957 for the discovery...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Biological Psychiatry
Volume: 29
Published: 23 May 2014
10.1159/000358028
EISBN: 978-3-318-02600-9
... model impossible. Therefore, there are many preclinical animal models for schizophrenia research, each of which has relevance to different aspects of the neurobiology of the disorder and its treatment. Preclinical animal models in schizophrenia research are vital for biomarker discovery...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 32
Published: 23 September 2013
10.1159/000350624
EISBN: 978-3-318-02416-6
... for more than 20 years in the treatment of acid-related diseases such as gastroduodenal ulcers and reflux esophagitis. In the process of discovery of the PPIs, both companies independently identified the same compound (2-[(2-pyridylmethyl)sulfinyl]-1 H -benzimidazole, timoprazole), which had strong...
Book Chapter
Series: Translational Research in Biomedicine
Volume: 3
Published: 21 December 2012
10.1159/000343013
EISBN: 978-3-318-02285-8
... transformation of medicine through the development of a ‘discovery-care continuum’ capable of closing translational gaps and delivering evidence into practice at a population level. This vision attunes with the aims of the National Institute of Health Research in the UK to speed the progress of discovery...
Book Chapter
Series: Biovalley Monographs
Volume: 3
Published: 28 August 2012
10.1159/000339187
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9066-2
... Abstract As a contribution to the history of science, the discovery and the functions of bacterial restriction endonucleases, as well as their applications in molecular genetic analysis and in biotechnological innovations, including genetic engineering, are described here from the personal...
Book Chapter
Series: Monographs in Human Genetics
Volume: 19
Published: 07 March 2011
10.1159/000318392
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9595-7
... Abstract This is a historical review of the discovery of the first mutation detected in autosomal dominant craniosynostosis. The mutation was found in one large family in whom craniosynostosis segregated as an autosomal dominant trait. Craniosynostosis in this family was highly variable...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 169
Published: 14 January 2011
10.1159/000313951
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9538-4
... around the world must treat a disproportionately large number of diabetic patients with upto-date innovative measures. In this regard, identification of genes that are crucially involved in the progression of diabetic nephropathy would enhance the discovery of new biomarkers and could also promote...
Book Chapter
Series: Endocrine Development
Volume: 16
Published: 17 June 2009
10.1159/000223684
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9162-1
... recently been identified. The stories of discovery of these hormones have constituted a series of complex journeys which have been undertaken over the past century or so and none of which has yet been completed. The complexities of bone and calcium metabolism have been and remain, to many people, somewhat...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Biologicals
Volume: 132
Published: 08 August 2008
10.1159/000317180
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9596-4
... problems associated with leg and bone disorders, the pig has been suggested to be a good model for human bone disorders. Hence, the present study examined 134 porcine genes affecting skeletal development, mineral metabolism and other candidate genes for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery...
Book Chapter
Series: Translational Research in Biomedicine
Volume: 1
Published: 01 July 2008
10.1159/000140936
EISBN: 978-3-8055-8577-4
... of these functions. Thestructures of both enzymes have been solved by X-ray crystallography and this aids in understandinghow small molecules interact with these enzymes. The discovery of inhibitors active against HCV repliconsin cell culture allows for the selection of replicons resistant to inhibitors...
Book Chapter