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Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 118
Published: 24 April 2018
10.1159/000484645
EISBN: 978-3-318-06253-3
... Abstract Two recent international studies have documented the very low intakes, almost everywhere, of the essential fats, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). These consumption levels are then contrasted with the many dietary recommendations on DHA/EPA around the world...
Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519392
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... long-term developmental outcomes of this strategy. Introduction The omega-3 ( n -3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) together with the related omega-6 ( n -6) LCPUFA arachidonic acid (AA) are felt to play important roles...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 89
Published: 06 August 2018
10.1159/000486501
EISBN: 978-3-318-06352-3
... Abstract The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) occur in high levels in the brain and play a key role in brain growth and the operation of neurotransmitters. Infants supplemented with DHA show improved language...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 77
Published: 30 September 2013
10.1159/000351397
EISBN: 978-3-318-02447-0
... docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) status than infants fed human milk. Studies soon focused on efforts to improve LC-PUFA status and evaluate functions suggested by early primate studies of DHA deficiency. Despite evidence for the importance of these fatty acids for development...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519393
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... for the prevention of osteopenia of prematurity. Screening of serum phosphate concentrations is useful. Deficiencies of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are frequently observed in extremely preterm infants. A recent Swedish study suggests that combined DHA and AA supplementation may reduce...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 110
Published: 15 April 2014
10.1159/000358460
EISBN: 978-3-318-02641-2
...) are crucial for normal development of the central nervous system and have potential for long-lasting effects that extend beyond the period of dietary insufficiency. Given the limited and highly variable formation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from α-linolenic acid, and because DHA is critical for normal...
Book Chapter
Series: Endocrine Development
Volume: 30
Published: 10 December 2015
10.1159/000439324
EISBN: 978-3-318-05637-2
... Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important causes of chronic liver disease in children and adults. Recently, therapeutic supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) showed an anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effect in children with NAFLD...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 65
Published: 11 February 2010
10.1159/000281154
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9305-2
... Abstract There has been intense interest in the role of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), in growth and development of infants. In 2009, there are at least twelve published randomized controlled trials (RCT) assessing the effects...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 77
Published: 30 September 2013
10.1159/000351395
EISBN: 978-3-318-02447-0
... Abstract The significance of the selective enrichment in omega-3 essential fatty acids (docosahexaenoyl - DHA - chains of membrane phospholipids, 22C and 6 double bonds) in the nervous system (e.g. synaptic membranes and dendrites) has remained, until recently, incompletely understood. While...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 122
Published: 03 September 2021
10.1159/000514749
EISBN: 978-3-318-06647-0
... fatty acids arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are considered conditionally essential substrates that should be provided, because their rate of synthesis from precursors tends to be lower than their needs for growth. Complex lipid molecules form a small part of dietary supply...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 124
Published: 15 June 2022
10.1159/000516721
EISBN: 978-3-318-06296-0
..., such as the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Human milk has an average content of 0.5% n-6 arachidonic acid (ARA) and 0.3% n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Gene-diet interaction points to important benefits of infant ARA and DHA supply for cognitive achievement and asthma risk in childhood. Human milk fat...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 99
Published: 09 December 2008
10.1159/isbn.978-3-8055-9020-4
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9020-4
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 27
Published: 17 November 2010
10.1159/000319507
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9606-0
...) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and an increased ratio of n–6:n–3 were reported. In other types of depression, similar changes in omega fatty acids were also found in the blood of depressed patients. Most clinical trials showed that EPA as a monotherapy or adding EPA to other treatments could effectively improve...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 68
Published: 06 October 2011
10.1159/000325652
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9746-3
...-3), respectively, with the richest source of these fatty acids being vegetable oils. Several of their C20 and C22 metabolites, including arachidonic acid (20:4ω-6, ARA), adrenic acid (22:4ω-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω-3, DHA) are of particular interest...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 102
Published: 08 August 2011
10.1159/000327800
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9780-7
... ]. The scientific data acquired since 2001 raise questions about the need to: reassess the proportion of total fatty acids in energy intake; make a recommendation for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3), reassess the recommendation for DHA, and make a recommendation that covers both; reassess...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 113
Published: 17 April 2015
10.1159/000360317
EISBN: 978-3-318-02691-7
...) such as arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3). Dietary lipids and mother and child genetic variation in fatty acid desaturase and elongase enzymes determine the balance between n-3 and n-6 effects. Neural cell phospholipids in the retina and cerebral cortex are rich in DHA, while...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 77
Published: 30 September 2013
EISBN: 978-3-318-02447-0
... controlled trial. JAMA 2009;30:175-182. 13. Birch EE, Carlson SE, Hoffman DR, et al: The DIAMOND (DHA Intake and Measurement of Neural Development) Study: a double-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial of the maturation of infant visual acuity as a function of the dietary level of docosahexaenoic...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 90
Published: 13 March 2019
10.1159/000490294
EISBN: 978-3-318-06341-7
... with high fish consumption have more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other ω-3 FAs in their milk, while mothers with high dairy consumption have more branched-chain FAs in their milk. Vitamins A and E are the most common fat-soluble vitamins, but milk concentrations vary, depending on maternal diet and body...