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Book Chapter
Series: Aesthetic Dermatology
Volume: 5
Published: 09 February 2021
10.1159/000491840
EISBN: 978-3-318-06690-6
.... The stratum corneum (SC) provides a strong barrier to drug delivery. This is especially problematic for relatively large molecules with a molecular mass larger than 500 Da [ 1 ]. Overcoming the skin barrier in a safe and effective way is the goal of transcutaneous delivery systems [ 2 ]. Topical drug delivery...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 54
Published: 21 August 2018
10.1159/000489521
EISBN: 978-3-318-06385-1
... the expression as well as the activity of proteins and enzymes that are involved in the establishment of the skin pH. This rise of the pH combined with a rearrangement of the cornified envelope is a main driver for a reduced epidermal barrier in old age leading to an increased prevalence for infections, reduced...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 54
Published: 21 August 2018
10.1159/000489530
EISBN: 978-3-318-06385-1
... Abstract Skin barrier repair therapies often involve the use of medicated and non-medicated topical preparations. To measure the effect of topical preparations, clinical (scoring systems, for example, Score of Atopic Dermatitis, Dermatology Quality of Life Index) and biophysical procedures (e.g...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Ophthalmology
Volume: 58
Published: 24 April 2017
10.1159/000455265
EISBN: 978-3-318-06033-1
... that the proximate cause of macular edema and retinal fluid accumulation is a breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). When there is a breakdown of the BRB, retinal edema can be interpreted in terms of basic principles of capillary filtration (Starling's law). Therefore, the main factors influencing retinal...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441539
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract The skin barrier function is greatly dependent on the structure and composition of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), which is made up of flattened anucleated cells surrounded by highly organized and continuous lipid matrix. The interior of the corneocytes...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441540
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract Human skin acts as a primary barrier between the body and its environment. Crucial for this skin barrier function is the lipid matrix in the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC). Two of its functions are (1) to prevent excessive water loss through the epidermis and (2...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441541
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract Tight junctions (TJs) are complex cell-cell junctions that form a barrier in the stratum granulosum of mammalian skin. Besides forming a barrier themselves, TJs influence other skin barriers, e.g. the stratum corneum barrier, and are influenced by other skin barriers, e.g...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441543
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract The skin serves as a strong barrier protecting us from invading pathogens and harmful organisms. An important part of this barrier comes from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are small peptides expressed abundantly in the skin. AMPs are produced in the deeper layers...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441545
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract The skin barrier, formed by the stratum corneum, envelops our bodies and provides an essential protective function. However, this barrier function differs between individuals due to biological variation. This variation arises as a result of inherited genetic variants, negative...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441546
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract Due to the ease of skin accessibility, a large variety of invasive and noninvasive in vitro and in vivo methods have been developed to study barrier function. The measurement of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is most widely used in clinical studies. The different methods...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441587
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract The epidermal barrier, predominantly attributed to the stratum corneum (SC), is the outermost part of our body that comprises multiple defensive functions against exogenous attacks and the loss of body substances, e.g. water. A novel investigative method, in vivo Raman confocal...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441547
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract The barrier response to irritant challenge involves complex biologic events and can be modulated by various environmental, exposure and host-related factors. Irritant damage to the epidermal barrier elicits a cascade of homeostatic or pathologic responses that could be investigated...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441548
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441549
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441586
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract Moisturizers affect the stratum corneum architecture and barrier homeostasis, i.e. topically applied ingredients are not as inert to the skin as one might expect. A number of different mechanisms behind the barrier-influencing effects of moisturizers have been suggested, such as simple...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441588
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract The skin is a vital organ, and through our skin we are in close contact with the entire environment. If we lose our skin we lose our life. The barrier function of the skin is mainly driven by the sophisticated epidermis in close relationship with the dermis. The epidermal epithelium...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441589
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... dermatitis. There are many endogenous and exogenous factors which affect the development of OCD, including age, sex, ethnicity, atopic skin diathesis, certain occupations and environmental factors. One of the most important contributing causes is skin barrier dysfunction. The skin provides a first-line...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441590
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... and focuses on its influence on barrier function. There are different methods to study the effect of wet work on barrier function. On the one hand, occupational cohorts at risk can be monitored prospectively by skin bioengineering technology and clinical visual scoring systems; on the other hand, experimental...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/000441592
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3
... Abstract One third of all occupation-related diseases are diseases of the skin, and in most of these cases the skin barrier is involved. Professions such as metalworkers, hairdressers, and health care and construction workers are mainly affected. Among them, contact dermatitis is the leading...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 49
Published: 12 February 2016
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-05586-3
EISBN: 978-3-318-05586-3