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androgen

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Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 53
Published: 16 October 2019
10.1159/000494899
EISBN: 978-3-318-06471-1
... Abstract In utero androgen excess reliably induces polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like reproductive and metabolic traits in female monkeys, sheep, rats, and mice. In humans, however, substantial technical and ethical constraints on fetal sampling have curtailed safe, pathogenic exploration...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 53
Published: 16 October 2019
10.1159/000494901
EISBN: 978-3-318-06471-1
... Abstract Adipose tissue is an important target of androgen action in humans. Androgens exert important effects on adipose tissue biology, including fat mass expansion and distribution, insulin signalling and lipid metabolism. In conditions of female androgen excess such as polycystic ovary...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 53
Published: 16 October 2019
10.1159/000494902
EISBN: 978-3-318-06471-1
... Abstract Sex steroids, except for their primary reproductive role, exert key effects on metabolic target tissues. Androgen receptors have been detected in various tissues, participating in both central and peripheral regulation of metabolism and insulin action. The physiological role...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 53
Published: 16 October 2019
10.1159/000494906
EISBN: 978-3-318-06471-1
... Abstract About 1% of ovarian tumors that comprise testicular cell types can cause hyperandrogenism followed by characteristic virilization. Androgenic group of tumors originated mainly from sex-cord stromal ovarian tumors are including steroid cell tumors, Leydig tumors, granulosa cell tumors...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 53
Published: 16 October 2019
10.1159/000494907
EISBN: 978-3-318-06471-1
... Abstract Unwanted sexual hair growth has a considerable negative impact on a woman’s self-esteem and quality of life. Excessive growth of terminal hair in women in a man-like pattern is defined as hirsutism and affects up to 1 in 7 women. Androgens secreted by the ovary and adrenal are the main...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 53
Published: 16 October 2019
10.1159/000494910
EISBN: 978-3-318-06471-1
... with androgen excess experience polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), whereas the prevalence of idiopathic hirsutism and idiopathic hyperandrogenemia is about 5–20, 2–4%, for nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 0.2% for androgen-secreting neoplasms [ 1 - 3 ]. Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly...
Book Chapter
Series: Monographs in Human Genetics
Volume: 21
Published: 11 September 2017
10.1159/000477280
EISBN: 978-3-318-06098-0
... Abstract The androgen testosterone has an essential trophic role in the development of male physiology and in adult spermatogenesis and fertility. Testosterone mainly exerts its effect through the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that is activated by binding...
Book Chapter
Series: Endocrine Development
Volume: 27
Published: 15 September 2014
10.1159/000363610
EISBN: 978-3-318-02559-0
... Abstract Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes...
Book Chapter
Series: Endocrine Development
Volume: 24
Published: 04 February 2013
10.1159/000342499
EISBN: 978-3-318-02268-1
... Abstract Androgen insensitivity describes the inability of cells to respond adequately to androgens. The clinical aspects are well characterized and described in the androgen insensitivity syndrome, where underandrogenization occurs despite normal to high levels of androgens. In 46,XY...
Book Chapter
Published: 17 August 2012
10.1159/000336425
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9930-6
... produces elevated amounts of catecholamines. This chapter examines gender aspects concerning adrenal hormones, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Addison’s disease, adrenal tumors, and endocrine hypertension. It will also look at replacement therapy for women with androgen deficiency and hirsutism...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
Volume: 31
Published: 11 October 2011
10.1159/000330196
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9825-5
... Abstract Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are underutilized in patients seeking diminution of problematic sexual drives. This chapter reviews the literature on surgical castration of sex offenders, anti-androgen use and the rationale for providing androgen deprivation therapy, rather...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 37
Published: 17 November 2008
10.1159/000175843
EISBN: 978-3-8055-8623-8
... Abstract A dysfunctional androgen receptor is able to cause variable phenotypes of androgen insensitivity or androgenicity in humans. In addition, also a polymorphism, the CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene (CAG)n, modulates androgen effects: androgen-induced target...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Radiation Therapy and Oncology
Volume: 41
Published: 17 June 2008
10.1159/000139885
EISBN: 978-3-8055-8525-5
... Abstract Prednisolone monotherapy has been the standard systemic treatment in many patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer and should today be compared to treatment with Taxotere plusprednisolone. One hundred and thirty four patients were entered into a randomized phase II study[arm...
Book Chapter
Series: Endocrine Development
Volume: 13
Published: 05 June 2008
10.1159/000134780
EISBN: 978-3-8055-8581-1
... Abstract During embryogenesis, the male external genitalia are formed by the action of the potent androgen,dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is produced in human genital skin and prostate from testosterone viathe action of 5α-reductase type 2. The biological relevance of this pathway to DHT...
Book Chapter
Series: Endocrine Development
Volume: 13
Published: 05 June 2008
10.1159/000134831
EISBN: 978-3-8055-8581-1
... Abstract Adrenal androgen excess is found in adult female rhesus monkeys previously exposed to androgen treatmentduring early gestation. In adulthood, such prenatally androgenized female monkeys exhibit elevatedbasal circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), typical...
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