Jean-Martin Charcot, the iconic 19th century French scientist, is still regarded today as the most famous and celebrated neurologist in the world. Despite the development of strong independent schools of thought in the USA, UK and Germany, his ‘Salpêtrière’ school has become symbolic of the early development and rise of neurological practice and research. This book presents a fresh look at the origins of nervous system medicine, and at the fate of Charcot’s school and pupils. Special emphasis is placed upon the parallels and interactions between developments in neurology and mental medicine, clearly demonstrating that Charcot is not only the father of clinical neurology, but also wielded enormous influence upon the field we would come to know as psychiatry. Providing new insights into the life and work of Charcot and his pupils, this book will make fascinating reading for neurologists, psychiatrists, physicians and historians.