Anxiety disorders are not uncommon and are often ‘comorbid’ with other forms of mental disorders. This publication provides an update on the origins and the causes of anxiety disorders and their related symptoms. Its focus is on neuroimaging and neuroinflammation and genetics as well as areas where an overlap may exist with abnormal cardiovascular physiology. Further it takes a closer look at the early phases of anxiety disorder and the potential effects of prolonged illness prior to diagnosis and also investigates recent research findings about the neuroimmunology of depression and the immunomodulatory effects of antidepressants. It also examines the neuroinflammatory hypothesis about anxiety disorders and concludes with the succinct but evidence-based and comprehensive reports on the value of pharmacological treatments used for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The topics covered in this publication will certainly make it essential reading for both novice and expert practitioners in psychiatric medicine, but its appeal should extend even further and include those researching the neuropsychobiology of anxiety or trying to improve our grasp of posttraumatic stress disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder.