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  • Adiposity rebound, adult obesity prediction 128-131

  • Anorexia nervosa, weight loss and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor interference 178, 179

  • Anthropometric biomarkers

    • growth in children 20

    • preterm infant growth evaluation 154

  • Antipsychotic drugs, metabolic syndrome association 177, 178

  • Atherosclerosis, early growth correlation with

    • adult disease

    • history of study 162, 163

    • growth acceleration hypothesis 163—165

    • prospects for study 165, 166

  • Atomoxetine, growth and weight effects 176

  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, medication effects on growth and weight 174-177

  • Barker hypothesis 27

  • Body composition

    • adult obesity prediction from trajectories 128, 129

    • bone accretion effects 42, 43

    • cystic fibrosis in young children 169—172

    • infancy effects in later obesity 116, 117

  • Body mass index

    • adult obesity prediction from trajectories 128, 130-133

    • cystic fibrosis in young children 170-172

    • obesity, see also Obesity

  • Bone, see also Osteoporosis, Peak bone mass

    • fetal and neonatal physiology 182, 183

    • turnover markers 22, 23

  • Bone disease of prematurity

    • etiology

      • nutritional factors 183-185

      • physical inactivity 185, 186

      • vitamin D status 185

    • pathophysiology 182, 183

    • screening 186, 187

  • Bone mineral content

    • body composition and bone accretion effects 42, 43

    • early growth studies of osteoporosis 47, 48

    • height status and peak height velocity association with bone accretion 40-42

    • preterm infant nutrition and adult outcomes 31

    • puberty and bone accretion effects 42

  • Bone mineral density

    • body composition and bone accretion effects 42, 43

    • bone disease of prematurity 187

    • height status and peak height velocity association with bone accretion 40-42

    • preterm infant nutrition and adult outcomes 31

    • puberty and bone accretion effects 42

  • Brain

    • development and early nutrition impact 28-30

    • energy expenditure in early infancy 28

    • insulin-like growth factor-1 response 115, 116

    • obesity prevention 114

    • reference groups

      • study populations at risk for malnutrition 36, 37

    • versus World Health Organization standards 34

  • Cardiovascular disease, see Atherosclerosis

  • Catch-up growth

    • epiphyseal growth plate 83-85, 87, 88, 101, 102

    • modulators and effects on modulators

      • epigenetics 86

      • growth hormone 84, 85

      • hypoxia-inducible factor-1 85, 86

      • insulin-like growth factor-1 84, 85

      • leptin 85

      • mammalian target of rapamycin 87

      • microRNA 86, 87

    • multiple organs 102, 103

    • overview 84

  • Complementary feeding, timing effects in later obesity 114

  • Crohn's disease, see Inflammatory bowel disease

  • Cystic fibrosis

    • body composition of young children 169—172

    • growth assessment 168, 169

  • Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, obesity effects 139

  • Developing countries

    • Gambia growth faltering in rural regions

      • epigenetics 93-95

      • life course view 93

      • overview 90, 91

      • secular trends 91, 92

    • insulin-like growth factor-1 and

    • malnutrition effects 56, 57

    • prospects for growth faltering studies

      • epigenetics 95, 96

      • gastroenteropathy triggers 96

      • gut microbiotome 97, 98

      • immune system ontogeny 96

      • infection and hormonal regulation of growth 97

      • malnutrition interaction with infection 97

  • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    • bone disease of prematurity screening 186, 187

    • preterm infant growth evaluation 154

  • ELANCE study 129-132

  • Energy gap, analysis in childhood obesity 120

  • Epigenetics

    • catch-up growth studies 86

    • growth faltering in rural Gambia 93-95

    • prospects for study in developing countries 95, 96

  • Epiphyseal growth plate, catch-up growth 83-85, 87, 88, 101, 102

  • EPODE 123

  • ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition guidelines for early nutritional intervention evaluation 7

  • Exclusive enteral nutrition, inflammatory bowel disease management 158, 159

  • Flow-mediated dilatation, preterm infant early growth correlation 30

  • Formula, fed infants versus World Health Organization standards 35

  • Gambia, see Developing countries

  • Growth chart, see World Health Organization growth standards

  • Growth, see also Catch-up growth, Insulin-like growth factor-1

    • definition 3

    • developing countries, see Developing countries height status and peak height velocity

    • association with bone accretion 40-43

    • infants, see Infants, Preterm infants

    • nutritional biomarkers in children

      • anthropometric biomarkers 20

      • ideal characteristics 19, 20

      • insulin-like growth factor-1 22

      • insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 22

      • leptin 21

      • micronutrient status 21

      • microRNAs 23

      • procollgen type I C-terminal propeptide 22

      • type III N-terminal propeptide 22

    • World Health Organization growth standards 77-81

  • Growth hormone

    • catch-up growth studies 84, 85

    • inflammation effects 57, 58

    • inflammatory bowel disease impact 143, 144

    • insulin-like growth factor-1

      • axis 52-54

      • regulation 54

    • obesity effects 137

    • protein malnutrition effects 54

    • therapy for inflammatory bowel disease 145, 146

  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1, catch-up growth studies 85, 86

  • Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants 122, 123

  • IGFALS, mutations 63

  • Infants, see also Preterm infants

    • adult disease correlations

      • animal studies 5

      • clinical trial design and reviews 5-7, 9, 10

      • early nutrition 4

      • size and growth of infants 4

    • growth evaluation in nutrition studies

      • growth quality and health outcomes 13-15

      • nutrieconomic approach to growth outcomes 15-17

      • rationale 12, 13

    • guidelines for early nutritional intervention evaluation 7, 8

  • Inflammation, effects on growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor axis 57, 58, 143, 144

  • Inflammatory bowel disease

    • exclusive enteral nutrition 158, 159

    • growth failure

      • evaluation 157

      • pathophysiology 157, 158

    • growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis effects 143, 144

    • growth impairment management 144-145

    • puberty impact 143

  • Institute of Medicine of the National

    • Academies, guidelines for early

    • nutritional intervention evaluation 7, 8

  • Insulin-like growth factor-1

    • acid labile subunit, see IGFALS

    • breastfeeding response 115, 116

    • catch-up growth studies 84, 85

    • childhood levels and later obesity risks 116

    • growth biomarker in children 22

    • growth hormone axis 52-54

    • growth hormone/receptor regulation 54

    • inflammatory bowel disease impact 143, 144

    • knockout mouse studies 61-63

    • malnutrition effects

      • developing countries 56, 57

      • inflammation 57

      • peripheral production 55, 56

      • protein intake 54

    • mutations in ligand and receptor 63

    • obesity effects 137

    • polymorphisms 63, 64

  • Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins

    • dietary restriction effects 54, 55

    • growth biomarker in children 22

    • IGFBP-3 regulation by nutrition 64

    • obesity effects 137

  • Insulin, malnutrition effects 54, 55

  • Intelligence quotient

    • intrauterine growth restriction children 152

    • preterm infant nutrition and outcomes 30

  • Intrauterine growth restriction

    • causes and risk factors 151

    • growth evaluation

      • measures 154

      • overview 153, 154

    • postnatal growth 151-153

    • prenatal growth 150, 151

  • Kiel Obesity Prevention Study 120

  • Lean body mass, bone accretion effects 42, 43

  • Leptin

    • catch-up growth studies 85

    • mutations and obesity treatment 107, 109, 110

    • receptor mutations and obesity treatment 107-109

  • Luteinizing hormone, obesity effects 139

  • Malnutrition, see also specific diseases

    • breastfeeding reference groups in study populations at risk for malnutrition 36, 37

    • catch-up growth, see Catch-up growth

    • insulin-like growth factor-1/growth hormone response

      • developing countries 56, 57

      • inflammation 57

      • peripheral production 55, 56

      • protein intake 54

  • Mammalian target of rapamycin, catch-up growth studies 87

  • Melanocortin receptors, MC4R mutations and

    • obesity treatment 106-110

  • Metabolic bone disease, see Bone disease of prematurity

  • Metabolic syndrome, antipsychotic drug association 177, 178

  • MicroRNA

    • catch-up growth studies 86, 87

    • growth biomarker in children 23

  • Neonatal and Infant Close Monitoring chart

    • date box method of gestational adjustment 71, 73

    • design team 70

    • evaluation stages and impact on design 72

    • field testing 73

    • novel features 70, 71

    • source data 70

  • Obesity

    • antipsychotic drug effects 177, 178

    • body composition in infancy effects in later life 116, 117

    • breastfeeding in prevention 114

    • complementary feeding timing effects 114

    • early intake studies of later risks

      • fat 115

      • protein 114, 115

    • growth consequences in children 136, 137

    • growth trajectories for adult prediction

      • adiposity rebound 128-131

      • body composition trajectories 128, 129

      • body mass index trajectories 128, 130-133

      • cross-sectional observations 130

      • massive obesity 132

    • insulin-like growth factor-1 role 115, 116

    • monogenetic mutations and

    • treatment 105-111

    • prevention in children

      • overview 119, 120

      • effective intervention evidence 124, 125

      • energy gap analysis 120

      • EPODE 123

      • Identification and Prevention of Dietary-and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants 122, 123

      • risk factor modification 120-122

    • puberty effects

      • hormone levels 139

      • onset and progression 138, 139

  • Osteoporosis

    • early growth studies 46-48

    • economic burden 46

    • prenatal factors in development 48-50

  • Peak bone mass, importance 40

  • Peak height velocity, bone accretion association 40-42

  • Prenatal nutrition, osteoporosis studies 48-50

  • Preterm infants, see also Intrauterine growth restriction

    • bone disease 31, see also Bone disease of prematurity

    • brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation and early growth 30

    • brain development 28-30

    • developmental origins of health and disease 26-28

    • parenteral nutrition 28

  • Procollagen type I C-terminal propeptide, growth biomarker in children 22

  • Prohormone convertase 1, mutations and obesity treatment 107, 109

  • Protein

    • early intake and later obesity risks 114, 115

    • intake effects on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis 54

    • malnutrition effects on growth hormone axis 54

  • Puberty

    • bone accretion effects 42, 43

    • inflammatory bowel disease impact 143

    • obesity effects

      • hormone levels 139

      • onset and progression 138, 139

  • Ritalin, growth and weight effects 175, 176

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, weight loss interference in anorexia nervosa 178, 179

  • Sex steroid-binding globulin, obesity effects 139

  • Type III N-terminal propeptide, growth biomarker in children 22

  • Ulcerative colitis, see Inflammatory bowel disease

  • Very low birth weight, see Intrauterine growth restriction, Preterm infants

  • Vitamin D

    • bone disease of prematurity status 185

    • maternal status and osteoporosis studies of offspring 48, 49

  • World Health Organization growth standards

    • adoption and implementation

      • challenges 80, 81

      • implications 79, 80

      • monitoring 77, 78

    • breastfeeding

      • reference groups versus standards 34

      • reference groups in study populations at risk for malnutrition 36, 37

      • formula-fed infants versus standards 35

      • growth chart design and use in United

        • Kingdom

        • good design features 67, 68

        • instructions 69

        • intended use 67

        • layout 67-69

      • launch 76, 77

      • overview 75, 76

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