The hippocampus in mammals is a morphologically well-defined structure, and so are its main subdivisions. To define the homologous structure in other vertebrate clades, using these morphological criteria has been difficult, if not impossible, since the typical mammalian morphology is absent. Although there seems to be consensus that the most medial part of the pallium represents the hippocampus in all vertebrates, there is no consensus on whether all mammalian hippocampal subdivisions are present in the derivatives of the medial pallium in all vertebrate groups. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential relevance of connections to define the hippocampus across vertebrates, with a focus on mammals, reptiles, and birds.

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