Retinal ganglion cells (GCs) in the Japanese catshark Scyliorhinus torazame were labeled retrogradely with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA3000). First the labeled cells were classified into 5 morphological types (types I-III: small GCs; types IV and V: large GCs) according to the size of the soma and the dendritic arborization pattern as seen in retinal wholemounts. Type I cells were stellate, with dendrites radiating in different directions. Type II cells had bipolar dendritic trees, with 2 primary dendrites extending in opposite directions. Type III cells had a single thick primary dendrite. Type IV cells were stellate, with dendrites covering a large area centered on the cell body. Type V cells were asymmetric, with most dendrites extending opposite to the axon as a large, fan-shaped dendritic field. Subsequently a wholemount was cross-sectioned, and we classified cells further into multiple subtypes according to the level of dendritic arborization within the inner plexiform layer. The present results suggest the existence of many types of GCs in elasmobranchs in addition to the 3 types of large GCs that have been characterized previously. Some of the newly described GC subtypes in the catshark retina appear to be similar to some of those reported in actinopterygians.

1.
Adams JC (1981): Heavy metal intensification of DAB-based HRP reaction product. J Histochem Cytochem 29:775.
2.
Amthor FR, Takahashi ES, Oyster CW (1989): Morphology of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with concentric receptive fields. J Comp Neurol 280:97-121.
3.
Anctil M, Ali MA (1974): Giant ganglion cells in the retina of the hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini). Vision Res 14:903-904.
4.
Bellintani-Guardia B, Ott M (2002): Displaced retinal ganglion cells project to the accessory optic system in the chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus). Exp Brain Res 145:56-63.
5.
Bloomfield SA, Miller RF (1986): A functional organization of ON and OFF pathways in the rabbit retina. J Neurosci 6:1-13.
6.
Boycott BB, Wässle H (1974): The morphological types of ganglion cells of the domestic cat's retina. J Physiol 240:397-419.
7.
Bozzano A (2004): Retinal specialisations in the dogfish Centroscymnus coelolepis from the Mediterranean deep-sea. Sci Mar 68:185-195.
8.
Bozzano A, Collin SP (2000): Retinal ganglion cell topography in elasmobranchs. Brain Behav Evol 55:191-208.
9.
Bravo H, Pettigrew JD (1981): The distribution of neurons projecting from the retina and visual cortex to the thalamus and tectum opticum of the barn owl, Tyto alba, and the burrowing owl, Speotyto cunicularia. J Comp Neurol 199:419-441.
10.
Buhl EH, Peichl L (1986): Morphology of rabbit retinal ganglion cells projecting to the medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic system. J Comp Neurol 253:163-174.
11.
Cohen JL, Gruber SH (1985): Spectral input to lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris) ganglion cells. J Comp Physiol A 156:579-586.
12.
Collin SP (1988): The retinal structure of the giant shovel-nosed ray, Rhinobatos batillum (Rhinobatidae): morphology and quantitative analysis of ganglion, amacrine and bipolar cell populations. Exp Biol 47:195-297.
13.
Collin SP (1989): Topography and morphology of retinal ganglion cells in the coral trout Plectropoma leopardus (Serranidae): a retrograde cobaltous-lysine study. J Comp Neurol 281:143-158.
14.
Collin SP, Northcutt RG (1993): The visual system of the Florida garfish, Lepisosteus platyrhincus (Ginglymodi). 3. Retinal ganglion cells. Brain Behav Evol 42:295-320.
15.
Compagno LJV, Dando M, Fowler S (2005): Sharks of the World. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
16.
Cook JE, Becker DL (1991): Regular mosaics of large displaced and non-displaced ganglion cells in the retina of a cichlid fish. J Comp Neurol 306:668-684.
17.
Cook JE, Becker DL, Kapila R (1992): Independent mosaics of large inner- and outer-stratified ganglion cells in the goldfish retina. J Comp Neurol 318:355-366.
18.
Cook JE, Kondrashev SL, Podugolnikova TA (1996): Biplexiform ganglion cells, characterized by dendrites in both outer and inner plexiform layers, are regular, mosaic-forming elements of teleost fish retinae. Vis Neurosci 13:517-528.
19.
Cook JE, Podugolnikova TA (2001): Evidence for spatial regularity among retinal ganglion cells that project to the accessory optic system in a frog, a reptile, a bird, and a mammal. Vis Neurosci 18:289-297.
20.
Cook JE, Podugolnikova TA, Kondrashev SL (1999): Species-dependent variation in the dendritic stratification of apparently homologous retinal ganglion cell mosaics in two neoteleost fishes. Vis Res 39:2615-2631.
21.
Cook JE, Sharma SC (1995): Large retinal ganglion cells in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus): three types with distinct dendritic stratification patterns form similar but independent mosaics. J Comp Neurol 362:331-349.
22.
Dann JF, Buhl EH (1987): Retinal ganglion cells projecting to the accessory optic system in the rat. J Comp Neurol 262:141-158.
23.
Dowling JE, Ripps H (1970): Visual adaptation in the retina of the skate. J Gen Physiol 56:491-520.
24.
Dunn-Meynell AA, Sharma SC (1986): The visual system of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). 1. Retinal ganglion cell morphology. J Comp Neurol 247:32-55.
25.
Famiglietti EV Jr, Kaneko A, Tachibana M (1977): Neuronal architecture of on and off pathways to ganglion cells in carp retina. Science 198:1267-1269.
26.
Fite KV, Brecha N, Karten HJ, Hunt SP (1981): Displaced ganglion cells and the accessory optic system of pigeon. J Comp Neurol 195:279-288.
27.
Fletcher LN, Coimbra JP, Rodger J, Potter IC, Gill HS, Dunlop SA, Collin SP (2014): Classification of retinal ganglion cells in the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis (Cyclostomata). J Comp Neurol 522:750-771.
28.
Frank BD, Hollyfield JG (1987): Retinal ganglion cell morphology in the frog, Rana pipiens. J Comp Neurol 266:413-434.
29.
Fritzsch B, Collin SP (1990): Dendritic distribution of two populations of ganglion cells and the retinopetal fibers in the retina of the silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis). Vis Neurosci 4:533-545.
30.
Hart SN (2002): Vision in the peafowl (Aves: Pavo criatatus). J Exp Biol 205:3925-3935.
31.
Hitchcock PF, Easter SS Jr (1986): Retinal ganglion cells in goldfish: a qualitative classification into four morphological types, and a quantitative study of the development of one of them. J Neurosci 6:1037-1050.
32.
Ito H, Murakami T (1984): Retinal ganglion cell in two teleost species, Sebastiscus marmoratus and Navodon modestus. J Comp Neurol 229:80-96.
33.
Kim I-J, Zhang Y, Yamagata M, Meister M, Sanes R (2008): Molecular identification of a retinal cell type that responds to upward motion. Nature 452:478-482.
34.
Kock J-H, Reuter T (1978): Retinal ganglion cells in the crucian carp (Carassius carassius). 2. Overlap, shape and tangential orientation of dendritic trees. J Comp Neurol 179:549-568.
35.
Lisney TJ, Collin SP (2008): Retinal ganglion cell distribution and spatial resolving power in elasmobranchs. Brain Behav Evol 72:59-77.
36.
Litherland L, Collin SP (2008): Comparative visual function in elasmobranchs: spatial arrangement and ecological correlates of photoreceptor and ganglion cell distributions. Vis Neurosci 25:549-561.
37.
Litherland L, Collin SP, Fritsches KA (2009): Eye growth in sharks: ecological implications for changes in retinal topography and visual resolution. Vis Neurosci 26:397-409.
38.
Mangrum WI, Dowling JE, Cohen ED (2002): A morphological classification of ganglion cells in the zebrafish retina. Vis Neurosci 19:767-779.
39.
Mariani AP (1982): Biplexiform cells: ganglion cells of the primate retina that contact photoreceptors. Science 216:1134-1136.
40.
Muguruma K, Takei S, Yamamoto N (2013): Retinal ganglion cell distribution and spatial resolving power in the Japanese catshark Scyliorhinus torazame. Zool Sci 30:42-52.
41.
Naka K, Witkovsky P (1972): Dogfish ganglion cell discharge resulting from extrinsic polarization of the horizontal cells. J Physiol 223:449-460.
42.
Northcutt RG (1991): Visual pathways in elasmobranchs: organization and phylogenetic implications. J Exp Zool Sup 5:97-107.
43.
Ott M, Walz BC, Paulsen UJ, Mack AF, Wagner H-J (2007): Retinotectal ganglion cells in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. J Comp Neurol 501:647-658.
44.
Peterson EH, Rowe MH (1980): Different regional specializations of neurons in the ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer of the California horned shark, Heterodontus francisci. Brain Res 201:195-201.
45.
Pushchin I, Kalachev A (2010): Biplexiform ganglion cells contact photoreceptors in the retina of the greenling Hexagrammos octogrammus. Synapse 64:937-940.
46.
Pushchin II, Kondrashev SL (2003): Biplexiform ganglion cells in the retina of the perciform fish Pholidapus dybowskii revealed by HRP labeling from the optic nerve and optic tectum. Vis Res 43:1117-1133.
47.
Reiner A (1981): A projection of displaced ganglion cells and giant ganglion cells to the accessory optic nuclei in turtle. Brain Res 204:403-409.
48.
Repérant J, Miceli D, Rio JP, Peyrichoux J, Pierre J, Kirpitchnikova E (1986): The anatomical organization of retinal projections in the shark Scyliorhinus canicula with special reference to the evolution of the selachian primary visual system. Brain Res Rev 11:227-248.
49.
Rodieck RW, Watanabe M (1993): Survey of the morphology of macaque retinal ganglion cells that project to the pretectum, superior colliculus, and parvicellular laminae of the lateral geniculate nucleus. J Comp Neurol 338:289-303.
50.
Schieber NL, Collin SP, Hart NS (2012): Comparative retinal anatomy in four species of elasmobranch. J Morphol 273:423-440.
51.
Shamim KM, Tóth P, Becker DL, Cook JE (1999): Large retinal ganglion cells that form independent, regular mosaics in the bufonoid frogs Bufo marinus and Litoria moorei. Vis Neurosci 16:861-879.
52.
Shapley R, Perry VH (1986): Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles. Trends Neurosci 9:229-235.
53.
Shibkova AS (1971): Regarding the retinal ganglion cells of selachians (in Russian, with abstract in English). Arch Anat Histol Embryol Leningrad 60:21-28.
54.
Smeets WJAJ (1981): Retinofugal pathways in two chondrichthyans, the shark Scyliorhinus canicula and the ray Raja clavata. J Comp Neurol 195:1-11.
55.
Stell WK, Detwiler PB, Wagner HG, Wolbarsht ML (1971): Spatial organization and adaptational changes of ON-OFF ganglion cells in Mustelus retina. Biol Bull 141:403-404.
56.
Stell WK, Detwiler PB, Wagner HG, Wolbarsht ML (1975): Giant retinal ganglion cells in dogfish (Mustelus): Electrophysiology of single on-centre units; in Ali MA (ed): Vision in Fishes: New Approaches to Research. New York, Plenum Press, pp 99-112.
57.
Stell WK, Wagner HG, Wolbarsht ML (1970): Receptive field organization of ganglion cells in the retina of the smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis. Biol Bull 139:437-438.
58.
Stell WK, Witkovsky P (1973): Retinal structure in the smooth dogfish Mustelus canis: general description and light microscopy of giant ganglion cells. J Comp Neurol 148:1-32.
59.
Tachibana M (1978): Displaced ganglion cells in carp retina revealed by the horseradish peroxidase technique. Neurosci Lett 9:153-157.
60.
Tanaka S (1908): Notes on some Japanese fishes, with descriptions of fourteen new species. J Coll Sci Tokyo Imp Univ 23:1-54, pls 1-4.
61.
Tóth P, Straznicky C (1989): Biplexiform ganglion cells in the retina of Xenopus laevis. Brain Res 499:378-382.
62.
Vallerga S, Djamgoz MBA (1991): Ganglion cells in the goldfish retina: correlation of light-evoked response and morphology. Vis Res 31:487-497.
63.
Völgyi B, Chheda S, Bloomfield SA (2009): Tracer coupling patterns of the ganglion cell subtypes in the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol 512:664-687.
64.
Xin D, Bloomfield SA (1997): Tracer coupling pattern of amacrine and ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. J Comp Neurol 383:512-528.
65.
Xue H-G, Yang C-Y, Ito H (2004): The anterograde and retrograde axonal transport of biotinylated dextran amine and biocytin in the nervous system of teleosts. Brain Res Protoc 13:106-114.
66.
Yeager M, Nicholson BJ (1996): Structure of gap junction intercellular channels. Curr Opin Struct Biol 6:183-192.
67.
Yoshino T, Aonuma Y (2000): Scyliorhinidae; in Nakabo T (ed): Fishes of Japan with Pictorial Keys to the Species (in Japanese). Tokyo, Tokai University Press, pp 127-131.
68.
Zrenner E, Nelson R, Mariani A (1983): Intracellular recordings from a biplexiform ganglion cell in macaque retina, stained with horseradish peroxidase. Brain Res 262:181-185.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.