The telencephalic basal ganglia (BG) of amniotes consist of two subdivisions, striatum and pallidum, which share many features, including development, cell types, neurotransmitter organization and hodology. In particular, these two subdivisions during development are defined on the basis of discrete gene expression patterns (genoarchitecture or genoarchitectonics). The characterization of the BG in the subpallium of representatives of the different classes of anamniote vertebrates was first approached in studies dealing with their localization, hodology and main neurochemical characteristics. Thus, it was proposed that an impressive degree of conservation exists across species. New insights can be gained by the comparative analysis of the expression of conserved transcription factors that distinctly define the striatal and pallidal components of the BG in all vertebrates. In addition, the expression of other genes that characterize neighboring regions of the BG is also useful to define the boundaries of each subdivision. Following this approach, we have analyzed the BG in the brain of juvenile representatives of amphibians, lungfishes, holosteans, Polypteriformes and Chondrichthyes. In addition, we briefly review previous data in teleosts and agnathans. The markers used include islet 1 and Dlx as striatal markers, whereas Nkx2.1 is essential for the identification of the pallidum. In turn, Pax6 and in particular Tbr1 are expressed in the pallium. These markers have been systematically analyzed in combination with neuronal markers of specific subpallial territories and cell populations, such as tyrosine hydroxylase, γ-aminobutyric acid, nitric oxide synthase, substance P and enkephalin. The results highlight that many genes share common distribution patterns and are arranged in conserved combinations whose identification has served to define homologies between components of the BG in distant species.

1.
Braford MR Jr (2009): Stalking the everted telencephalon: comparisons of forebrain organization in basal ray-finned fishes and teleosts. Brain Behav Evol 74:56-76.
2.
Brinkmann H, Venkatesh B, Brenner S, Meyer A (2004): Nuclear protein-coding genes support lungfish and not the coelacanth as the closest living relatives of land vertebrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:4900-4905.
3.
Brox A, Puelles L, Ferreiro B, Medina L (2003): Expression of the genes GAD67 and Distalless-4 in the forebrain of Xenopus laevis confirms a common pattern in tetrapods. J Comp Neurol 461:370-393.
4.
Chen M, Zou M, Yang L, He S (2012): Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing. PLoS One 7:e36256.
5.
Ganz J, Kaslin J, Freudenreich D, Machate A, Geffarth M, Brand M (2012): Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish subpallium by molecular marker analysis. J Comp Neurol 520:633-655.
6.
González A, López JM, Sánchez-Camacho C, Marín O (2002): Regional expression of the homeobox gene NKX2-1 defines pallidal and interneuronal populations in the basal ganglia of amphibians. Neuroscience 114:567-575.
7.
González A, Northcutt RG (2009): An immunohistochemical approach to lungfish telencephalic organization. Brain Behav Evol 74:43-55.
8.
Hofmann MH, Northcutt RG (2012): Forebrain organization in elasmobranchs. Brain Behav Evol 80:142-151.
9.
Joven A, Morona R, González A, Moreno N (2013): Expression patterns of Pax6 and Pax7 in the adult brain of a urodele amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl. J Comp Neurol 521:2088-2124.
10.
López JM, Perlado J, Morona R, Northcutt RG, González A (2013): Neuroanatomical organization of the cholinergic system in the central nervous system of a basal actinopterygian fish, the Senegal bichir Polypterus senegalus. J Comp Neurol 521:24-49.
11.
Marín O, Smeets WJAJ, González A (1998a): Evolution of the basal ganglia in tetrapods: a new perspective based on recent studies in amphibians. Trends Neurosci 21:487-494.
12.
Marín O, Smeets WJAJ, González A (1998b): Basal ganglia organization in amphibians: evidence for a common pattern in tetrapods. Prog Neurobiol 55:363-397.
13.
Marín O, Smeets WJAJ, González A (1998c): Basal ganglia organization in amphibians: chemoarchitecture. J Comp Neurol 392:285-312.
14.
Martínez de la Torre M, Pombal MA, Puelles L (2011): Distal-less-like protein distribution in the larval lamprey forebrain. Neuroscience 178:270-284.
15.
Medina L (2008): Basal ganglia: evolution; in Squire LR (ed): Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp 67-85.
16.
Moreno N, Bachy I, Rétaux S, González A (2004): LIM-homeodomain genes as developmental and adult genetic markers of Xenopus forebrain functional subdivisions. J Comp Neurol 472:52-72.
17.
Moreno N, Domínguez L, Rétaux S, González A (2008a): Islet1 as a marker of subdivisions and cell types in the developing forebrain of Xenopus. Neuroscience 154:1423-1439.
18.
Moreno N, González A (2007): Regionalization of the telencephalon in urodele amphibians and its bearing on the identification of the amygdaloid complex. Front Neurosci 1:1.
19.
Moreno N, González A, Rétaux S (2008b): Evidences for tangential migrations in Xenopus telencephalon: developmental patterns and cell tracking experiments. Dev Neurobiol 68:504-520.
20.
Moreno N, González A, Rétaux S (2009): Development and evolution of the subpallium. Semin Cell Dev Biol 20:735-743.
21.
Moreno N, Morona R, López JM, Domínguez L, Joven A, Bandín S, González A (2012): Characterization of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the forebrain of anuran amphibians. J Comp Neurol 520:330-363.
22.
Moreno N, Morona R, López JM, González A (2010): Subdivisions of the turtle Pseudemysscripta subpallium based on the expression of regulatory genes and neuronal markers. J Comp Neurol 518:4877-4902.
23.
Morona R, López JM, Northcutt RG, González A (2013): Comparative analysis of the organization of the cholinergic system in the brains of two holostean fishes the Florida gar Lepisosteus platyrhincus and the bowfin Amia calva. Brain Behav Evol 81:109-142.
24.
Mueller T, Wullimann MF (2009): An evolutionary interpretation of teleostean forebrain anatomy. Brain Behav Evol 74:30-42.
25.
Mueller T, Wullimann MF, Guo S (2008): Early teleostean basal ganglia development visualized by zebrafish Dlx2a, Lhx6, Lhx7, Tbr2 (eomesa), and GAD67 gene expression. J Comp Neurol 507:1245-1257.
26.
Murakami Y, Uchida K, Rijli FM, Kuratani S (2005): Evolution of the brain developmental plan: insights from agnathans. Dev Biol 280:249-259.
27.
Nieuwenhuys R (1998): Lungfishes; in Nieuwenhuys R, ten Donkelaar HJ, Nicholson C (eds): The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates, vol 2. Heidelberg, Springer, pp 936-1006.
28.
Nieuwenhuys R (2009): On old and new comparative neurological sinners: the evolutionary importance of the membranous parts of the actinopterygian forebrain and their sites of attachment. J Comp Neurol 516:87-93.
29.
Northcutt RG (2009): Telencephalic organization in the spotted African Lungfish, Protopterus dolloi: a new cytological model. Brain Behav Evol 73:59-80.
30.
Northcutt RG, González A (2011): A reinterpretation of the cytoarchitectonics of the telencephalon of the Comoran coelacanth. Front Neuroanat 5:9.
31.
Parent A (1986): Comparative Neurobiology of the Basal Ganglia. New York, Wiley.
32.
Puelles L, Ferrán JL (2012): Concept of neuralgenoarchitecture and its genomic fundament. Front Neuroanat 6:47.
33.
Puelles L, Kuwana E, Puelles E, Bulfone A, Shimamura K, Keleher J, Smiga S, Rubenstein JLR (2000): Pallial and subpallial derivatives in the embryonic chick and mouse telencephalon, traced by the expression of the genes Dlx2, Emx1, Nkx2.1, Pax6 and Tbr1. J Comp Neurol 424:409-438.
34.
Quintana-Urzainqui I, Sueiro C, Carrera I, Ferreiro-Galve S, Santos-Durán G, Pose-Méndez S, Mazan S, Candal E, Rodríguez-Moldes I (2012): Contributions of developmental studies in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula to the brain anatomy of elasmobranchs: insights on the basal ganglia. Brain Behav Evol 80:127-141.
35.
Reiner A (2010): The conservative evolution of the vertebrate basal ganglia; in Steiner H, Tseng KY (eds): Handbook of Basal Ganglia Structure and Function. San Diego, Academic Press, pp 29-62.
36.
Reiner A, Medina L, Veenman CL (1998): Structural and functional evolution of the basal ganglia in vertebrates. Brain Res Rev 28:235-285.
37.
Reiner A, Northcutt RG (1987): An immunohistochemical study of the telencephalon of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens. J Comp Neurol 256:463-481.
38.
Rodríguez-Moldes I (2009): A developmental approach to forebrain organization in elasmobranchs: new perspectives on the regionalization of the telencephalon. Brain Behav Evol 74:20-29.
39.
Smeets WJAJ, Marín O, González A (2000): Evolution of the basal ganglia: new perspectives through a comparative approach. J Anat 196:501-517.
40.
Smeets WJAJ, Nieuwenhuys R, Roberts BL (1983): The Central Nervous System of Cartilaginous Fishes: Structure and Functional Correlations. Berlin, Springer.
41.
Stephenson-Jones M, Samuelsson E, Ericsson J, Robertson B, Grillner S (2011): Evolutionary conservation of the basal ganglia as a common vertebrate mechanism for action selection. Curr Biol 21:1081-1091.
42.
Wicht H, Northcutt RG (1994): An immunohistochemical study of the telencephalon and the diencephalon in a myxinoid jawless fish, the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stouti. Brain Behav Evol 43:140-161.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.