This study compares a whole brain of the dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) with that of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Kogia brain was scanned with a Siemens Trio Magnetic Resonance scanner in the three main planes. As in the common dolphin and other marine odontocetes, the brain of the dwarf sperm whale is large, with the telencephalic hemispheres remarkably dominating the brain stem. The neocortex is voluminous and the cortical grey matter thin but expansive and densely convoluted. The corpus callosum is thin and the anterior commissure hard to detect whereas the posterior commissure is well-developed. There is consistency as to the lack of telencephalic structures (olfactory bulb and peduncle, olfactory ventricular recess) and neither an occipital lobe of the telencephalic hemisphere nor the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle are present. A pineal organ could not be detected in Kogia. Both species show a tiny hippocampus and thin fornix and the mammillary body is very small whereas other structures of the limbic system are well-developed. The brain stem is thick and underlies a large cerebellum, both of which, however, are smaller in Kogia. The vestibular system is markedly reduced with the exception of the lateral (Deiters’) nucleus. The visual system, although well-developed in both species, is exceeded by the impressive absolute and relative size of the auditory system. The brainstem and cerebellum comprise a series of structures (elliptic nucleus, medial accessory inferior olive, paraflocculus and posterior interpositus nucleus) showing characteristic odontocete dimensions and size correlations. All these structures seem to serve the auditory system with respect to echolocation, communication, and navigation.

Abeles M (1991) Corticonics: Neural Circuits of the Cerebral Cortex. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Aboitiz F, Ide A, Olivares R (2003) Corpus callosum morphology in relation to cerebral asymmetries in the postmortem human. In: The Parallel Brain (Zaidel E, Iacoboni M, eds), pp 33–49. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Asan E, Nitsch R (2004) Limbische Areale und Verbindungen (limbisches System). In: Benninghoff/Drenckhahn: Anatomie (Drenckhahn D, ed), vol 2, pp 527–531. München: Elsevier.
Birkmayer W, Pilleri G (1966) La formation réticuléé du tronc cérébral et ses relations avec le comportement végétativo-affectif. Service Scientifique Roche, F. Hoffmann-La Roche and Cie, Bâle; p 111.
Blinkov SM, Glezer II (1968) The Human Brain in Figures and Tables. A Quantitative Handbook. New York: Basic Books Inc., Publishers.
Boesten AJP, Voogd J (1975) Projections of the dorsal column nuclei and the spinal cord on the inferior olive of the cat. J Comp Neurol 161:215–238.
Brauer K, Schober W (1970) Katalog der Säugetiergehirne. Jena: VEB G. Fischer.
Breathnach AS (1960) The cetacean nervous system. Biol Rev Cambridge Philos Soc 35:187–230.
Brodal A (1957) The Reticular Formation of the Brain Stem. Anatomical Aspects and Functional Correlations. The William Henderson Trust Lectures No. 18. Edinburgh – London: Oliver and Boyd.
Buhl EH, Oelschläger HA (1988) Morphogenesis of the harbor porpoise brain. J Comp Neurol 277:109–125.
Butler AB, Hodos W (2005) Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy. Evolution and Adaptation. 2nd ed, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience.
Büttner-Ennever JA (1992) Patterns of connectivity in the vestibular nuclei. In: Sensing and Controlling Motion. Vestibular and Sensorimotor Function (Cohen B, Tomko DL, Guedry F, eds). Ann NY Acad Sci 656:363–378.
Caldwell DK, Caldwell M (1989) Pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (de Blainville, 1838). Dwarf sperm whale Kogia simus (Owen 1866). In: Handbook of Marine Mammals (Ridgway SH, Harrison R, eds), vol. 4, pp 235–260. London: Academic Press.
Changizi MA (2001) Principles underlying mammalian neocortical scaling. Biol Cybern 84:207–215.
Changizi MA (2007) Scaling the brain and its connections. In: Evolution of Nervous Systems. A Comprehensive Reference (Kaas JH, Krubitzer LA, eds), vol 3, pp 167–180. Amsterdam: Academic Press-Elsevier.
Clarke MR, Martins HR, Pascoe P (1993) The diet of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus 1758) off the Azores. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 339:67–82.
Comtesse-Weidner P (2007) Untersuchungen am Kopf des fetalen Narwals Monodon monoceros – ein Atlas zur Entwicklung und funktionellen Morphologie des Sonarapparates. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen. Edition Scientifique. WB Laufersweiler Verlag, p 118.
Cranford TW, Amundin M, Norris KS (1996) Functional morphology and homology in the odontocete nasal complex. Implications for sound generation. J Morphol 228:223–285.
Cranford TW (1999) The sperm whale’s nose: sexual selection on a grand scale? Mar Mamm Sci 15:1133–1157.
Cranford TW (2000) In search of impulse sound sources in odontocetes. In: Hearing by Whales and Dolphins (Au WWL, Popper AN, Fay RR, eds), pp 109–155. New York: Springer.
Dailly M (1972a) Contribution to the study of the cochlear apparatus in dolphins. In: Investigations on Cetacea (Pilleri G, ed), vol. 4, pp 215–230. Berne, Switzerland: Brain Anatomy Institute.
Dailly M (1972b) Contribution to the study of the VIIIth vestibular nerve of cetaceans: The elliptic nucleus. In: Investigations on Cetacea (Pilleri G, ed), vol. 4, pp 231–248. Berne, Switzerland: Brain Anatomy Institute.
De Graaf AS (1967) Anatomical Aspects of the Cetacean Brain Stem. Assen: Van Gorcum and Prakke.
Deacon TW (1990) Rethinking mammalian brain evolution. Am Zool 30:629–705.
Doty RW (2007) Cortical commissural connections in primates, In: Evolution of Nervous Systems. A Comprehensive Reference (Kaas JH, Krubitzer LA, eds), vol 4, pp 277–289. Amsterdam: Academic Press-Elsevier.
Duguy R (1995) Kogia simus (Owen 1866) – Kleinpottwal. In: Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas, (Niethammer J, Krapp F, eds), vol. 6, IB: Wale und Delphine (Robineau D, Duguy R, Klima M, eds), pp 615–623. Wiesbaden: Aula-Verlag.
Flower WH (1868–69) On the osteology of the cachalot or sperm-whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Trans Zool Soc Lond 6:309–372, pls. 55–61.
Fordyce E, De Muizon C (2001) Evolutionary history of cetaceans: a review. In: Secondary Adaptations of Tetrapods to Life in Water (Mazin JM, De Buffrénil V, eds), pp 169–233. München: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil.
Freeman WJ, Williams JM (1952) Human sonar. The amygdaloid nucleus in relation to auditory hallucinations. J Nerv Ment Dis 116: 456–462.
Friauf E, Herbert H (1985) Topographic organization of facial motoneurons to individual pinna muscles in rat (Rattus rattus) and bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). J Comp Neurol 240:161–170.
Fung C, Schleicher A, Kowalski T, Oelschläger HHA (2005) Mapping auditory cortex in the La Plata dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei). Brain Res Bull 66:353–356.
Furutani R (2008) Laminar and cytoarchitectonic features of the cerebral cortex in the Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). J Anat 213:241–248.
Gambell R (1995) Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758. In: Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas (Niethammer J, Krapp F, eds), vol. 6: Meeressäuger, Teil IB: Wale und Delphine (Robineau D, Duguy R, Klima M, eds), pp 625–646. Wiesbaden: Aula-Verlag.
Geisler JH, Luo Z (1998) Relationships of Cetacea to terrestrial ungulates and the evolution of cranial vasculature in Cete. In: The Emergence of Whales. Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea (Thewissen JGM, ed), pp 163–212. New York: Plenum Press.
Glezer II, Morgane PJ (1990) Ultrastructure of synapses and Golgi analysis of neurons in neocortex of the lateral gyrus (visual cortex) of the dolphin and pilot whale. Brain Res Bull 24:401–427.
Glezer II, Jacobs MS, Morgane PJ (1988) Implications of the ‘initial brain’ concept for brain evolution in Cetacea. Behav Brain Sci 11:75–116.
Glickstein M, Oberdick J, Voogd J (2007) Evolution of the cerebellum. In: Evolution of Nervous Systems. A Comprehensive Reference (Kaas JH, Krubitzer LA, eds), vol. 3, pp 413–442. Amsterdam: Academic Press-Elsevier.
Haswell WA (1884) On the brain of Grey’s whale (Kogia Greyi). Proc Linn Soc New South Whales 3:437–439, pl. 21.
Hinrichsen CF, Watson CD (1983) Brain stem projections to the facial nucleus of the rat. Brain Behav Evol 22:153–163.
Hinrichsen CF, Watson CD (1984) The facial nucleus of the rat: representation of facial muscles revealed by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. Anat Rec 209:407–415.
Hofman MA (1989) On the evolution and geometry of the brain in mammals. Prog Neurobiol 32:137–158.
Holzmann T (1991) Morphologie und mikroskopische Anatomie des Gehirns beim fetalen Narwal, Monodon monoceros. Thesis. Faculty of Human Medicine, University of Frankfurt am Main.
Huggenberger S (2004) Functional morphology, development, and evolution of the upper respiratory tract in toothed whales (Odontoceti), Doctoral thesis, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Available at
Huggenberger S, Oelschläger HHA (in press) The epicranial complex of the La Plata dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) – topographical and functional implications. (Mar Mamm Sci).
Huggenberger S, Rauschmann MA, Oelschläger HHA (2008) Functional morphology of the hyolaryngeal complex of the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): Implications for its role in sound production and respiration. Anat Rec 291:1262–1270.
Huggenberger S, Rauschmann MA, Vogl T, Oelschläger HHA (2009) Functional morphology of the nasal complex in the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena L.). Anat Rec 292:902–920.
Hummel G (1975) Lichtmikroskopische, elektronenmikroskopische und enzymhistochemische Untersuchungen an der Groβhirnrinde von Rind, Schaf und Ziege. J Hirnforsch 16:245–285.
Igarashi S, Kamiya T (1972) Atlas on the Vertebrate Brain. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.
Jacobs MS, Jensen AV (1964) Gross aspects of the brain and a fiber analysis of cranial nerves in the great whale. J Comp Neurol 123:55–72.
Jacobs MS, McFarland WL, Morgane PJ (1979) The anatomy of the brain of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Rhinic Lobe (Rhinencephalon): The Archicortex. Brain Res Bull 4:1–108.
Jansen J (1950) The morphogenesis of the cetacean cerebellum. J Comp Neurol 93:341–400.
Jansen J, Jansen JKS (1953) A note on the amygdaloid complex in the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus L.). Hvalrad Skrift 39:1–14.
Jansen J, Jansen JKS (1969) The nervous system of cetacea. In: The Biology of Marine Mammals (Andersen HT, ed), pp 175–252. London: Academic Press.
Kemp B (1991) Morphogenese des Säugetiergehirns am Beispiel des Pottwals, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der menschlichen Ontogenese. Dissertation. Faculty of Human Medicine University Frankfurt a. M.
Keogh MJ, Ridgway SH (2008) Neuronal fiber composition of the corpus callosum within some odontocetes. Anat Rec 291:781–789.
Kern A, Seidel K, Oelschläger HHA (2009) The central vestibular complex in dolphins and humans: Functional implications of Deiters’ nucleus. Brain Behav Evol 73:102–110. DOI: 10.1159/000213646.
Ketten DR (2000) Cetacean ears. In: Hearing by Whales and Dolphins (Au WWL, Popper AN, Fay RR, eds), pp 43–108. New York: Springer.
Kojima T (1951) On the brain of the sperm whale (Physeter catodon L). Sci Rep Whales Res Inst Tokyo 6:49–72.
Kooy FH (1917) The inferior olive in vertebrates. Folia Neurobiol 10:205–396.
Korneliussen HK, Jansen J (1964) The morphogenesis and structure of the inferior olive of Cetacea. J Hirnforsch 7:301–314.
Kossatz LS (2006) Morphologie, Anatomie und Computertomographie des Ohres bei Zahnwalen. Ein Beitrag zur Funktionalität des Mittelohrs. Aachen: Shaker-Verlag.
Kruger L (1966) Specialized features of the cetacean brain. In: Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises (Norris KS, ed), pp 232–254. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Kugler P (2004) Rückenmark. In: Benninghoff/Drenckhahn: Anatomie (Drenckhahn D, ed), vol 2, pp. 284–325. München: Elsevier.
Kükenthal W, Ziehen T (1893) Über das Centralnervensystem der Cetaceen nebst Untersuchungen über die vergleichende Anatomie des Gehirns bei Placentaliern. Denkschr Med-Naturw Ges Jena 3:77–198, pls IV–XIII.
Langworthy OR (1932) A description of the central nervous system of the porpoise (Tursiops truncatus). J Comp Neurol 54:437–499.
Leonhardt H, Lange W (1987) Graue und weiβe Substanz des Hirnstammes (Rautenhirn). In: Rauber/Kopsch Anatomie des Menschen (Leonhardt H, Töndury G, Zilles K, eds). Band III: Nervensystem, Sinnesorgane, pp 259–318. Stuttgart – New York: Georg Thieme Verlag.
Lyamin, OI, Manger PR, Ridgway SH, Mukhametov LM, Siegel JM (2008) Cetacean sleep: An unusual form of mammalian sleep. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:1451–1484.
Madsen PT, Carder DA, Au WWL, Nachtigall PE, Mohl B, Ridgway SH (2003) Sound production in neonate sperm whales. J Acoust Soc Am 113:2988–2991.
Madsen PT, Carder DA, Bedholm K, Ridgway SH (2005) Porpoise clicks from a sperm whale nose – convergent evolution of 130 kHz pulses in toothed whale sonars? Bioacoustics 15:195–206.
Manger P (2006) An examination of cetacean brain structure with a novel hypothesis correlating thermogenesis to the evolution of a big brain. Biol Rev 81:293–338.
Manni E, Petrosini L (2004) A century of cerebellar somatotopy: a debated representation. Nat Rev Neurosci 5:241–249.
Marino L (2002) Brain size evolution. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. (Perrin WF, Würsig B, Thewissen JGM, eds), pp 158–162. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Marino L (2007) Cetacean brain evolution, In: Evolution of Nervous Systems. A Comprehensive Reference (Kaas JH, Krubitzer LA, eds), vol 3, pp 261–266. Amsterdam: Academic Press-Elsevier.
Marino L, Butti C, Connor RC, Fordyce RE, Herman LM, Hof PR, Lefebvre L, Lusseau D, McCowan B, Nimchinsky, EA, Pack AA, Reidenberg JS, Reiss D, Rendell L, Uhen MD, Van der Gucht E, Whitehead H (2008) A claim in search of evidence: reply to Manger’s thermogenesis hypothesis of cetacean brain structure. Biol Rev 83:417–440.
Marino L, Connor R, Fordyce R, Herman L, Hof P, Lefebvre L, Lusseau D, McCowan B, Nimchinsky E, Pack A, Rendell L, Reidenberg J, Reiss D, Uhen M, Van der Gucht E, Whitehead H (2007) Cetaceans have complex brains for complex cognition. PLoS Biology 5:966–972.
Marino L, Rilling JK, Lin SK, Ridgway SH (2000) Relative volume of the cerebellum in dolphins and comparison with anthropoid primates. Brain Behav Evol 56:204–211.
Marino L, Sudheimer K, Pabst DA, Mc Lellan WA, Johnson JI (2003) Magnetic resonance images of the brain of a dwarf sperm whale (Kogia simus). J Anat 203:57–76.
Matano S, Stephan H, Baron G (1985) Volume comparisons in the cerebellar complex of primates. I. Ventral pons. Folia Primatol 44:171–181.
McFarland WL, Morgane PJ, Jacobs MS (1969) Ventricular system of the brain of the dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, with comparative anatomical observations and relations to brain specializations. J Comp Neurol 135:275–368.
Mchedlidze GA (2002) Sperm whales, evolution. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. (Perrin WF, Würsig B, Thewissen JGM, eds), pp 1172–1174. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Mead JG, Fordyce RE (2009) The Therian Skull: A Lexicon with Emphasis on the Odontocetes. Smithson Contrib Zool, no 627. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press.
Møhl B, Wahlberg M, Madsen PT, Miller LA, Surlykke A (2000) Sperm whale clicks: Directionality and source level revisited. J Acoust Soc Amer 107:638–648.
Molinari HH (1985) Ascending somatosensory projections to the medial accessory portion of the inferior olive: a retrograde study in cats. J Comp Neurol 232:523–533.
Morgane PJ, Glezer II, Jacobs MS (1988) Visual cortex of the dolphin: An image analysis study. J Comp Neurol 273:3–25.
Morgane PJ, Jacobs MS (1972) Comparative anatomy of the cetacean nervous system. In: Functional Anatomy of Marine Mammals (Harrison RJ, ed), vol. 1, pp 117–244. London, New York: Academic Press.
Morgane PJ, Jacobs MS, McFarland WL (1971) The anatomy of the brain of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Rhinic lobe (rhinencephalon). The palaeocortex. J Comp Neurol 141:205–284.
Morgane PJ, Jacobs MS, McFarland WL (1980) The anatomy of the brain of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Surface configurations of the telencephalon of the bottlenose dolphin with comparative anatomical observations in four other cetacean species. Brain Res Bull 5:1–107.
Morgane PJ, Mc Farland WL, Jacobs MS (1982) The limbic lobe of the dolphin brain: A quantitative cytoarchitectonic study. J Hirnforsch 23:465–552.
Mukhametov LM (1984) Sleep in marine mammals. Exp Brain Res Suppl 8:227–238.
Neuhuber W (2004) Hirnstamm. In: Benninghoff/Drenckhahn: Anatomie (Drenckhahn D, ed), vol 2, pp 326–383. München: Elsevier.
Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E (1984) Lehrbuch der Anatomie der Haustiere, vol 4: Nervensystem, Sinnesorgane, Endokrine Drüsen, pp 1–188. Berlin: Paul Parey.
Nieuwenhuys R (1998) Telencephalon. In: The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates (Nieuwenhuys R, ten Donkelaar HJ, Nicholson C, eds), vol 3, pp 1871–2023. New York: Springer.
Nieuwenhuys R, Voogd J, Van Huijzen C (1991) Das zentrale Nervensystem des Menschen. Ein Atlas mit Begleittext. (Lange W, transl). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Nummela S, Reuter T, Hemilä S, Holmberg P, Paukku P (1999) The anatomy of the killer whale middle ear (Orcinus orca). Hearing Res 133:61–70.
Oelschläger HA (1989) Early development of the olfactory and terminalis systems in baleen whales. Brain Behav Evol 34:171–183.
Oelschläger HA (1990) Evolutionary morphology and acoustics in the dolphin skull. In: Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans (Thomas JA, Kastelein R, eds), pp 137–162. New York: Plenum Press.
Oelschläger HHA (2008) The dolphin brain- a challenge for synthetic neurobiology. Brain Res Bull 75:450–459.
Oelschläger HA, Buhl EH (1985) Development and rudimentation of the peripheral olfactory system in the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (Mammalia: Cetacea). J Morphol 184:351–360.
Oelschläger HHA, Kemp B (1998) Ontogenesis of the sperm whale brain. J Comp Neurol 399:210–228.
Oelschläger HHA, Oelschläger JS (2002) Brain. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. (Perrin WF, Würsig B, Thewissen JGM, eds), pp 133–158. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Oelschläger HHA, Oelschläger JS (2009) Brain. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. (Perrin WF, Würsig B, Thewissen JGM, eds). 2nd ed, pp 134–149, San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Oelschläger HA, Buhl EH, Dann JF (1987) Development of the Nervus terminalis in mammals including toothed whales and humans. Ann NY Acad Sci 519:447–464.
Oelschläger HHA, Haas-Rioth M, Fung C, Ridgway SH, Knauth M (2008) Morphology and evolutionary biology of the dolphin (Delphinus sp.) brain – MR imaging and conventional histology. Brain Behav Evol 71:68–86.
Ogawa T (1935a) Beiträge zur vergleichenden Anatomie des Zentralnervensystems der Wassersäugetiere: Über die Kleinhirnkerne der Pinnipedien und Zetazeen. Arb Anat Inst Sendai 17:63–136.
Ogawa T (1935b) Über den Nucleus ellipticus und den Nucleus ruber beim Delphin. Arb Anat Inst Sendai 17:55–61.
Ogawa T (1939) The tractus tegmenti medialis and its connection with the inferior olive in the cat. J Comp Neurol 70:181–190.
Ogawa T, Arifuku S (1948) On the acoustic system in the cetacean brain. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst, Tokyo 2:1–20.
Olivares R, Montiel J, Aboitiz F (2001) Species differences and similarities in the fine structure of the mammalian corpus callosum. Brain Behav Evol 57:98–105.
Oliver DL, Huerta MF (1992) Inferior and superior colliculi. In: The Mammalian Auditory Pathway: Neuroanatomy (Webster DB, Popper AN, Fay RR, eds), pp 168–221. Berlin: Springer.
Osborne RW, Sundsten JW (1981) Preliminary observations on 13 killer whale cranial volumes. Cetus 3:12–13.
Papez JW (1927) Subdivisions of the facial nucleus. J Comp Neurol 43:159–191.
Paxinos G (2004) The Rat Nervous System. 3rd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier-Academic Press.
Pilleri G (1972) Cerebral anatomy of the Platanistidae (Platanista gangetica, Platanista indi, Pontoporia blainvillei, Inia geoffrensis). In: Investigations on Cetacea (Pilleri G, ed), vol 2, pp 44–70. Institute of Brain Anatomy, University of Berne (Switzerland).
Pilleri G, Gihr M (1970) The central nervous system of the mysticete and odontocete whales. In: Investigations on Cetacea (Pilleri G, ed), vol. 2, pp 89–127, 8 pls. Institute of Brain Anatomy, University of Berne (Switzerland).
Pilleri G, Chen P, Shao Z (1980) Concise Macroscopical Atlas of the Brain of the Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis LINNAEUS, 1758). p 15, pls 25. Institute of Brain Anatomy, University of Berne (Switzerland).
Posner MI (1995) Attention in cognitive neuroscience: an overview. In: The Cognitive Neurosciences (Gazzaniga MS, ed). pp 615–624. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Poth C, Fung C, Güntürkün O, Ridgway SH, Oelschläger HHA (2005) Neuron numbers in sensory cortices of five delphinids compared to a physeterid, the pygmy sperm whale. Brain Res Bull 66:357–360.
Prahl S (2007) Untersuchungen zum Bau der epicranialen Atemwege beim Schweinswal (Phocoena phocoena Linnaeus, 1758). PhD thesis, Dept of Biology, University of Hamburg, 2 parts, pp 34 + 113.
Prahl S, Huggenberger S, Schliemann H (2009) Histological and ultrastructural aspects of the nasal complex in the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. J Morphol 270:1320–1337.
Precechtel A (1925) Some notes on the finer anatomy of the brain stem and basal ganglia of Elephas lucidus. Proc Kon Akad Wetensch, Amsterdam 28:81–93.
Prothero JW, Sundsten JW (1984) Folding of the cerebral cortex in mammals: a scaling model. Brain Behav Evol 24:152–167.
Rauschmann MA, Huggenberger S, Kossatz LS, Oelschläger HHA (2006) Head morphology in perinatal dolphins: A window into phylogeny and ontogeny. J Morphol 267:1295–1315.
Ribeiro S, Nicolelis MAL (2007) The evolution of neural systems for sleep and dreaming., In: Evolution of Nervous Systems. A Comprehensive Reference (Kaas JH, Krubitzer LA, eds), vol 3, pp 451–464. Amsterdam: Elsevier – Academic Press.
Rice DW (1989) Sperm Whale Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758. In: Handbook of Marine Mammals (Ridgway SH, Harrison R, eds), vol 4: River Dolphins and Larger Toothed Whales, pp 177–233. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Rice DW (1998) Marine Mammals of the World. Systematics and Distribution. Special Publication Number 4. The Society of Marine Mammalogy. Lawrence, KS 66044–8897: Allen Press.
Ridgway SH (1983) Dolphin hearing and sound production in health and illness. In: Hearing and Other Senses: Presentations in Honor of E.G. Wever (Fay RR, Gourevitch G, eds), pp 247–296. Groton, CT: The Amphora Press.
Ridgway SH (1986) Physiological observations on dolphin brains. In: Dolphin Cognition and Behavior: A Comparative Approach (Schusterman RJ, Thomas JA, Wood FG, eds), pp 31–59. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.
Ridgway SH (1990) The central nervous system of the bottlenose dolphin. In: The Bottlenose Dolphin (Leatherwood S, Reeves RR, eds), pp 69–97. New York: Academic Press.
Ridgway SH (2000) The auditory central nervous system of dolphins. In: Hearing by Whales and Dolphins (Au WWL, Popper AN, Fay RR, eds), pp 273–293. New York: Springer.
Ridgway SH, Au WWL (1999) Hearing and echolocation: Dolphin. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Adelman G, Smith BH, eds). 2nd ed, pp 858–862. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.
Ridgway SH, Au WWL (2009) Hearing and echolocation in dolphins. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Squire L, ed), vol 4, pp 1031–1039. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.
Ridgway SH, Brownson RH (1984) Relative brain sizes and cortical surface areas in odontocetes. Acta Zool Fenn 172:149–152.
Ridgway SH, Tarpley RJ (1996) Brain mass comparisons in Cetacea. Proc Int Assoc Aquat Anim Med (IAAAM) 27:55–57.
Ridgway SH, Bullock TH, Carder DA, Seeley RL, Woods D, Galambos R (1981) Auditory brainstem response in dolphins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:1943–1947.
Ridgway SH, Carder DA, Finneran JJ, Keogh M, Kamolnick T, Todd M, Goldblatt A (2006) Dolphin continuous auditory vigilance for five days. J Exp Biol 209:3621–3628.
Ridgway SH, Carder DA, Green RF, Gaunt AS, Gaunt SL, Evans WE (1980) Electromyographic and pressure events in the nasolaryngeal system of dolphins during sound production. In: Animal Sonar Systems (Busnel RG, Fish JF, eds), pp 239–249. New York: Plenum Press.
Ridgway SH, Demski LS, Bullock TH, Schwanzel-Fukuda M (1987) The terminal nerve in odontocete cetaceans. In: The Terminal Nerve (Nervus Terminalis) (Demski LS, Schwanzel-Fukuda M, eds). Ann NY Acad Sci 519:202–212.
Ridgway SH, Keogh M, Carder DA, Finneran JJ, Kamolnick T, Todd M, Goldblatt A (2009) Dolphins maintain cognitive performance during 72 to 120 h of continuous auditory vigilance. J Exp Biol 212:1519–1527.
Ries FA, Langworthy OR (1937) A study of the surface structure of the brain of the whale (Balaenoptera physalus and Physeter catodon). J Comp Neurol 68:1–47.
Ringo JL (1991) Neuronal interconnections as a function of brain size. Brain Behav Evol 38:1–6.
Ringo JL, Doty R, Demeter S, Simard PY (1994) Time is of the essence: A conjecture that hemispheric specialization arises from interhemispheric conduction delay. Cereb Cortex 4:331–343.
Schaller O (1992, ed) Illustrated Veterinary Anatomical Nomenclature. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke-Verlag.
Schmahmann JD, Pandya DN (2006) Fiber Pathways of the Brain. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schober W, Brauer K (1975) Makromorphologie des Gehirns der Säugetiere. In: Handbuch der Zoologie (Helmcke JG, Starck D, Wermuth H, eds), vol 8, pp 1–296. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter.
Schulmeyer FJ (1992) Morphologische Untersuchungen am Hirnstamm der Delphine unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des La Plata-Delphins, Pontoporia blainvillei. Doctoral dissertation. Faculty of Human Medicine, University of Frankfurt a.M.
Schulmeyer FJ, Adams J, Oelschläger HHA (2000) Specialized sound reception in dolphins- a hint for the function of the dorsal cochlear nucleus in mammals. Histor Biol 14:53–56. Amsterdam N.V.: Overseas Publishers Association.
Schwerdtfeger WK, Oelschläger HHA, Stephan H (1984) Quantitative neuroanatomy of the brain of the La Plata dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei. Anat Embryol 170:11–19.
Seki Y (1984) Anatomical studies on the cell column located closely medial to the nucleus of the spinal root of the trigeminal nerve in the sperm and the pygmy sperm whales. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst, Tokyo 35:47–56.
Sherwood CC (2005) Comparative anatomy of the facial motor nucleus in mammals, with an analysis of neuron numbers in primates. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 287:1067–1079.
Spoor F, Bajpai S, Hussain ST, Kumar K, Thewissen JGM (2002) Vestibular evidence for the evolution of aquatic behaviour in early cetaceans. Nature 417:163–166.
Stephan H (1975) Allocortex. In: Handbuch der mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen (Bargmann W, ed), vol 4, Part 9 (Nervensystem). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Stephan H, Andy OJ (1977) Quantitative comparison of the amygdala in insectivores and primates. Acta Anat 98:130–153.
Stephan H, Baron G, Frahm HD (1988) Comparative size of brains and brain components. In: Comparative Primate Biology, vol. 4: Neurosciences, pp 1–38. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.
Störmer R, von Solodkoff M, Goller H (1990) Zur Feinstruktur des Nucleus nervi facialis von Schaf und Ziege. Anat Anz 171:135–146.
Striedter GF (2005) Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Tarpley RJ, Ridgway SH (1994) Corpus callosum size in delphinid cetaceans. Brain Behav Evol 44:156–165.
Terminologia Anatomica. International Anatomical Terminology (1998) FCAT, Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. Stuttgart, New York: Thieme Verlag.
Tomilin AG (1967) Cetacea. In: Mammals of the U.S.S.R and adjacent countries (Heptner VG, ed), vol. 9, pp XI + 717. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations.
Trepel M (2008) Neuroanatomie. Struktur und Funktion. 4th ed. München, Jena: Elsevier (Urban und Fischer).
Van Dongen PAM, Nieuwenhuys R (1998) Diencephalon. In: The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates (Nieuwenhuys R, ten Donkelaar HJ, Nicholson C, eds), vol 3, pp 1844–1871. New York: Springer.
Verhaart WJC (1970) Comparative Anatomical Aspects of the Mammalian Brain Stem and the Cord. Assen, The Netherlands: van Gorcum and Company.
Vogt BA (2005) Pain and emotion interactions in subregions of the cingulate gyrus. Nature Rev Neurosci 6:533–544.
Von Hagens G, Whalley A, Maschke R, Kriz W (1990) Schnittanatomie des menschlichen Gehirns. Ein photographischer Atlas plastinierter Serienschnitte. Darmstadt: Steinkopff-Verlag.
Voogd J (1998a) Spinal cord. In: The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates (Nieuwenhuys R, ten Donkelaar HJ, Nicholson C, eds), vol. 3, pp 1654–1720. New York: Springer.
Voogd J (1998b) Cerebellum and precerebellar nuclei. In: The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates (Nieuwenhuys R, ten Donkelaar HJ, Nicholson C, eds), vol. 3, pp 1724–1753. New York: Springer.
Voogd J (1998c) Motor systems. In: The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates (Nieuwenhuys R, ten Donkelaar HJ, Nicholson C, eds), vol. 3, pp 1820–1844. New York: Springer.
Voogd J (1998d) Sensory systems. In: The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates (Nieuwenhuys R, ten Donkelaar HJ, Nicholson C, eds), vol. 3, pp 1762–1820. New York: Springer.
Wanke T (1990) Morphogenese des Gehirns beim Schlanken Delphin Stenella attenuata (Gray, 1846) [thesis]. Dissertation. Faculty of Human Medicine, University Frankfurt a.M.
Wartzok D, Ketten DR (1999) Marine mammal sensory systems. In: Biology of Marine Mammals (Reynolds JE 3rd, Rommel, SA, eds), pp 117–175. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Wever EG, McCormick JG, Palin J, Ridgway SH (1972) Cochlear structure in the dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69:657–661.
Wilson, RB (1933) The anatomy of the brain of the whale (Balaenoptera sulfurea). J Comp Neurol 58:419–480.
Yoshikawa T (1968) Atlas of the Brains of Domestic Animals. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
Zuleger S, Staubesand J (1976) Schnittbilder des Zentralnervensystems. München, Wien, Baltimore: Urban and Schwarzenberg.
Zvorykin VP (1963) Morphological substrate of ultrasonic and locational capacities in the dolphin. Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol 45:3–17 (in Russian).
Zvorykin VP (1975) Quantitative characteristics of the vestibular nuclei of the brain in the dolphin and man. Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol 68:77–80 (in Russian).
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.