Social life in anthropoid primates is mediated by interindividual communication, involving movements of the orofacial muscles for the production of vocalization and gestural expression. Although phylogenetic diversity has been reported in the auditory and visual communication systems of primates, little is known about the comparative neuroanatomy that subserves orofacial movement. The current study reports results from quantitative image analysis of the region corresponding to orofacial representation of primary motor cortex (Brodmann’s area 4) in several catarrhine primate species (Macaca fascicularis, Papio anubis, Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and Homo sapiens) using the Grey Level Index method. This cortical region has been implicated in the execution of skilled motor activities such as voluntary facial expression and human speech. Density profiles of the laminar distribution of Nissl-stained neuronal somata were acquired from high-resolution images to quantify cytoarchitectural patterns. Despite general similarity in these profiles across catarrhines, multivariate analysis showed that cytoarchitectural patterns of individuals were more similar within-species versus between-species. Compared to Old World monkeys, the orofacial representation of area 4 in great apes and humans was characterized by an increased relative thickness of layer III and overall lower cell volume densities, providing more neuropil space for interconnections. These phylogenetic differences in microstructure might provide an anatomical substrate for the evolution of greater volitional fine motor control of facial expressions in great apes and humans.

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