We examined the retinal ganglion cell layer of the dromedary camel, Camelus dromedarius. We have estimated that there are 8 million neurons in the ganglion cell layer of this large retina (mean area of 2,300 mm–2). However, only approximately 1 million are considered to be ganglion cells. The ganglion cells are arranged as two areas of high cell density, one in the temporal and one in the nasal retina. Densities of ganglion cells between these two high density regions is much lower, often less than 100 per mm–2. In between these two high density regions, on the nasal side of the optic nerve head, is a unique and dense vertical streak of mostly non-ganglion cells; the function of this specialization is unknown. On the basis of ganglion cell density we estimate that the peak acuity in the dromedary camel is about 10 and 9.5 cycles per degree in the temporal and nasal high density regions respectively and falls to 2–3 cycles per degree in the central retina. Behavioral acuity was estimated for one bactrian camel and was found to be approximately 10 cyc deg–1. The camel has a retina with a mean thickness of 104 µm, less than the 143 µm thickness that has previously been thought to be necessary for a retinal vasculature. Nevertheless, there is an extensive vitreal vasculature that does not appear to spare any retinal region.

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