Intracellular recordings and horseradish peroxidase injections were performed in the pretectum and adjacent tegmentum of Salamandra salamandra, while both optic nerves were electrically stimulated. In approximately half of the recorded units spikes could be evoked but rather graded postsynaptic potentials. The latter type morphologically showed features of interneurons. From a total of 48 recorded units, nearly 60% were excited only by the contralateral optic nerve, whereas approximately 40% were binocular. For the most part (10/19) the binocular cells were excited by the contralateral and inhibited by the ipsilateral optic nerve. Fewer neurons (7/19) received excitatory inputs from both optic nerves. The latency distribution of the monocular cells shows a maximum of 20–30 ms. The same maximum exists for the contralateral inputs to the binocular cells, whereas the ipsilateral inputs to these units were nearly as frequent with latencies of 20–30 and 40–50 ms. Since neurons with the short ipsilateral latencies always had parts of their dendrites within the ipsilateral ocular projection field, a feature which was lacking in the cells with long ipsilateral latencies it is possible that the longer latencies are due to indirect ipsilateral inputs. Efferents of labelled dorsal pretectal cells reach the contralateral pretectum via the posterior commissure, the basal optic neuropil of the accessory optic system and the tegmental white substance. More ventrally located cells often reach the pretectal and the basal optic neuropil with their dendrites. Axons of this type descend to the medulla oblongata via the medial longitudinal fasciculus.

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