Objectives: The primary goal was to investigate the suitability of CHAPS for assessing cognitive abilities and auditory processing in people with hearing loss (HL), specifically in the domains of auditory processing, verbal working memory, and auditory attention. Method: The study comprised 44 individuals between the ages of seven and 14, 22 with HL (N = 11 males) and 22 with normal hearing (N = 10 males). Individuals’ auditory attention, working memory, and auditory processing skills were assessed in the study, and self-report questionnaires were used. The evaluation utilized the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test (SAACT), Working Memory Scale (WMS), Filtered Words Test, Auditory Figured Ground Test (AFGT), and the Children’s Auditory Performance Scale (CHAPS). Analyses were conducted, including group comparisons, correlation examinations, and receiver operating characteristic evaluations. Results: There were significant differences in CHAPS total, attention, noise, quiet, and multiple inputs between groups. No significant differences were seen in CHAPS_ideal and CHAPS_auditory memory across groups. The study of SAACT and its subscores, WMS and its subscores, FWT, and AFGT revealed a significant difference between groups, caused by the poor performance of persons in the HL group compared to those in the NH group. The SAACT and its subscores correlated significantly with CHAPS_attention. The AUC calculation showed that The SAACT and CHAPS_attention distinguished persons with or without HL (p < 0.05). WMS_STM and WMS_total correlated with CHAPS auditory memory subscale; however, WMS_VWM did not. AUC values for WMS and its subscores showed significant discrimination in identifying children with or without HL (p < 0.05), whereas CHAPS_auditory memory did not (AUC = 0.665; p = 0.060). FWT and AFGT had a significant relationship with CHAPS_noise and CHAPS_multiple inputs subscales. The CHAPS_quiet and CHAPS_ideal subtests only correlated with AFGT. CHAPS_quite and CHAPS_ideal did not exhibit significant discriminative values (p < 0.05) for identifying children with or without HL, while CHAPS_noise, CHAPS_multiple inputs, FWT, and AFGT did. Conclusion: The CHAPS_attention subscale could be a trustworthy instrument for assessing auditory attention in children with HL. However, the CHAPS_auditory memory subscale may not be suitable for testing working memory. While performance-based auditory processing tests showed improved discrimination, the CHAPS_noise and CHAPS_multiple inputs subtests can still assess hearing-impaired auditory processing. The CHAPS_quiet and CHAPS_ideal subtests may not evaluate auditory processing.

1.
Cacace
AT
,
McFarland
DJ
.
Factors influencing tests of auditory processing: a perspective on current issues and relevant concerns
.
J Am Acad Audiol
.
2013
;
24
(
7
):
572
89
.
2.
Chinnaraj
G
,
Jain
C
,
Parameshwara
KS
,
Trinesh
R
.
Effect of age and hearing loss on auditory processing skills
.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
.
2023
;
75
(
Suppl 1
):
229
33
.
3.
Dai
L
,
Best
V
,
Shinn-Cunningham
BG
.
Sensorineural hearing loss degrades behavioral and physiological measures of human spatial selective auditory attention
.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
.
2018
;
115
(
14
):
E3286
95
.
4.
Köse
B
.
Koklear implant kullanıcısı çocuklarda çalışma belleği ve kısa süreli belleğin akademik başarı üzerine etkisi: Marmara Universitesi (Turkey)
;
2019
.
5.
Medwetsky
L
,
Riddle
L
,
Katz
J
.
Mechanisms underlying central auditory processing
.
Handbook Clin Audiol
.
2009
;
6
:
712
25
.
6.
Frezza
S
,
Catenazzi
P
,
Gallus
R
,
Gallini
F
,
Fioretti
M
,
Anzivino
R
, et al
.
Hearing loss in very preterm infants: should we wait or treat
.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
.
2019
;
39
(
4
):
257
62
.
7.
Jusczyk
PW
,
Hohne
EA
.
Infants’ memory for spoken words
.
Science
.
1997
;
277
(
5334
):
1984
6
.
8.
Russo
FY
,
De Seta
D
,
Orlando
MP
,
Ralli
M
,
Cammeresi
MG
,
Greco
A
, et al
.
Hearing attention and quality of listening in children with unilateral hearing loss with and without hearing aid
.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
.
2022
;
42
(
2
):
169
75
.
9.
Litovsky
RY
.
Spatial release from masking
.
Acoust Today
.
2012
;
8
(
2
):
18
25
.
10.
Robinson
K
,
Summerfield
AQ
.
Adult auditory learning and training
.
Ear Hear
.
1996
;
17
(
3 Suppl l
):
51S
65S
.
11.
Baddeley
A
.
Working memory: looking back and looking forward
.
Nat Rev Neurosci
.
2003
;
4
(
10
):
829
39
.
12.
Baddeley
A
.
Working memory, thought, and action
.
Oxford: OUP
;
2007
.
13.
Archibald
LM
,
Gathercole
SE
.
Visuospatial immediate memory in specific language impairment
;
2006
.
14.
Krumm
S
,
Schmidt-Atzert
L
,
Buehner
M
,
Ziegler
M
,
Michalczyk
K
,
Arrow
K
.
Storage and non-storage components of working memory predicting reasoning: a simultaneous examination of a wide range of ability factors
.
Intelligence
.
2009
;
37
(
4
):
347
64
.
15.
Rönnberg
J
,
Lunner
T
,
Zekveld
A
,
Sörqvist
P
,
Danielsson
H
,
Lyxell
B
, et al
.
The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model: theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances
.
Front Syst Neurosci
.
2013
;
7
:
31
.
16.
Savage
RS
,
Frederickson
N
,
Goodwin
R
,
Patni
U
,
Smith
N
,
Tuersley
L
.
Relationships among rapid digit naming, phonological processing, motor automaticity, and speech perception in poor, average, and good readers and spellers
.
J Learn Disabil
.
2005
;
38
(
1
):
12
28
.
17.
de Hoog
BE
,
Langereis
MC
,
van Weerdenburg
M
,
Keuning
J
,
Knoors
H
,
Verhoeven
L
.
Auditory and verbal memory predictors of spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants
.
Res Dev Disabil
.
2016
;
57
:
112
24
.
18.
Lyxell
B
,
Andersson
U
,
Borg
E
,
Ohlsson
IS
.
Working-memory capacity and phonological processing in deafened adults and individuals with a severe hearing impairment
.
Int J Audiol
.
2003
;
42
(
Suppl 1
):
86
9
.
19.
Ahn
JH
,
Oh
SH
,
Jang
H
,
Lee
JB
,
Chung
JW
.
Impact of hearing loss on the performance of auditory processing measured by questionnaires in Korean adolescents
.
Sci Rep
.
2020
;
10
(
1
):
10118
.
20.
Cherry
EC
.
Some experiments on the recognition of speech, with one and with two ears
.
The J Acoust Soc America
.
1953
;
25
(
5
):
975
9
.
21.
Meister
H
,
Schreitmüller
S
,
Grugel
L
,
Ortmann
M
,
Beutner
D
,
Walger
M
, et al
.
Cognitive resources related to speech recognition with a competing talker in young and older listeners
.
Neuroscience
.
2013
;
232
:
74
82
.
22.
Donadon
C
,
Sanfins
MD
,
Borges
LR
,
Colella-Santos
MF
.
Auditory training: effects on auditory abilities in children with history of otitis media
.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol
.
2019
;
118
:
177
80
.
23.
Flexer
CA
.
Facilitating hearing and listening in young children
;
1999
. (No Title).
24.
Liu
P
,
Zhu
H
,
Chen
M
,
Hong
Q
,
Chi
X
.
Electrophysiological screening for children with suspected auditory processing disorder: a systematic review
.
Front Neurol
.
2021
;
12
:
692840
.
25.
Mehrez
RN
,
Mohsen
SM
.
Study of the effect of minimal sensorineural hearing loss on the central auditory processing in children: a pilot study
.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
.
2023
;
75
(
4
):
2781
5
.
26.
Bieńkowska
K
,
Gos
E
,
Skarżyński
PH
.
Psychometric properties of the polish version of the children’s auditory performance scale
.
Med Og Nauk Zdr
.
2020
;
26
(
3
):
261
7
.
27.
Sharma
M
,
Purdy
SC
,
Humburg
P
.
Cluster analyses reveals subgroups of children with suspected auditory processing disorders
.
Front Psychol
.
2019
;
10
:
2481
.
28.
Feniman
MR
,
Ortelan
RR
,
Lauris
JRP
,
Campos
CF
,
Cruz
MS
.
A proposed behavioral tool to assess sustained auditory attention
.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
.
2007
;
73
(
4
):
523
7
.
29.
Ergül
C
,
ÖzgÜr Yilmaz
Ç
,
Demi̇r
E
.
5-10 yaş grubu çocuklara yönelik geliştirilmiş çalışma belleği ölçeğinin geçerlik ve güvenirliği
.
Eğitimde Kuram ve Uygulama
.
2018
;
14
(
2
):
187
214
.
30.
Babayiğit
S
,
Stainthorp
R
.
Component processes of early reading, spelling, and narrative writing skills in Turkish: a longitudinal study
.
Read Writ
.
2010
;
23
(
5
):
539
68
.
31.
Babayiğit
S
,
Stainthorp
R
.
Modeling the relationships between cognitive–linguistic skills and literacy skills: new insights from a transparent orthography
.
J Educ Psychol
.
2011
;
103
(
1
):
169
89
.
32.
Yalçinkaya
F
,
Türkyilmaz
MD
,
Keith
R
,
Harris
R
.
The scan-C (children) in testing for auditory processing disorder in a sample of Turkish children
.
J Int Adv Otology
.
2015
;
11
.
33.
Baydan
M
,
Aslan
F
,
Yilmaz
S
,
Yalçinkaya
F
.
Children’s auditory performance scale: Turkish validity and reliability
.
Hacettepe Univ Fac Health Sci J
.
2020
;
7
(
1
):
32
40
.
34.
Smoski
W
,
Brunt
MA
,
Tannahill
JC
.
Children’s auditory performance scale (CHAPS)
.
Tampa, FL
:
Educational Audiology Association
;
1998
.
35.
Hanley
JA
,
McNeil
BJ
.
A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases
.
Radiology
.
1983
;
148
(
3
):
839
43
.
36.
Fraenkel
JR
,
Wallen
NE
.
How to design and evaluate research in education
.
ERIC
;
1990
.
37.
Shaikh
MA
,
Baker
B
,
Levy
A
.
Comparison of questionnaire-based and performance-based screening tools as predictors of auditory processing disorder
.
Am J Audiol
.
2020
;
29
(
2
):
143
51
.
38.
McCreery
RW
,
Walker
EA
,
Spratford
M
,
Oleson
J
,
Bentler
R
,
Holte
L
, et al
.
Speech recognition and parent-ratings from auditory development questionnaires in children who are hard of hearing
.
Ear Hear
.
2015
;
36 Suppl 1
(
01
):
60S
75S
.
39.
Griffin
AM
,
Poissant
SF
,
Freyman
RL
.
Auditory comprehension in school-aged children with normal hearing and with unilateral hearing loss
.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch
.
2020
;
51
(
1
):
29
41
.
40.
Iliadou
V
,
Bamiou
DE
.
Psychometric evaluation of children with auditory processing disorder (APD): comparison with normal-hearing and clinical non-APD groups
;
2012
.
41.
Eggermont
JJ
.
Auditory temporal processing and its disorders
.
Oxford: OUP
;
2015
.
42.
Lewis
D
,
Sullivan
J
,
Irwin
J
,
Nelson
P
.
Benefits of app-based speech in noise screener for children
.
The J Acoust Soc America
.
2022
;
151
(
4_Suppl ment
):
A133
.
43.
Magimairaj
BM
,
Nagaraj
NK
,
Sergeev
AV
,
Benafield
NJ
.
Comparison of auditory, language, memory, and attention abilities in children with and without listening difficulties
.
Am J Audiol
.
2020
;
29
(
4
):
710
27
.
44.
Willis
S
,
Goldbart
J
,
Stansfield
J
.
The strengths and weaknesses in verbal short-term memory and visual working memory in children with hearing impairment and additional language learning difficulties
.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol
.
2014
;
78
(
7
):
1107
14
.
45.
Rezai
M
,
Lofti
G
,
Wiesi
F
.
Comparison of working memory in hearing loss and normal children
.
Pajouhan Sci J
.
2012
;
11
(
1
):
1391
5
.
You do not currently have access to this content.