Introduction: The objective of this study was to identify and clinically characterize patients treated in an Otoneurology Unit who experienced vestibular ototoxicity as a result of using aminoglycoside ear drops during outbreaks of superinfection in chronic otitis media. Material and Methods: An observational retrospective study was conducted, including patients with perforated eardrums who developed vestibular ototoxicity within the past 10 years following the application of topical ear aminoglycosides in a tertiary referral center. The study encompassed the assessment of the clinical presentation, treatment, quality of life, and evolution after treatment of the identified individuals. Results: During the study period, 6 patients, aged between 33 and 71 years, developed vestibular ototoxicity following the use of topical aminoglycoside drops due to infection flares in chronic otitis media. All cases involved the use of gentamicin. Two cases were unilateral, and 4 were unilateral. The onset of symptoms occurred within one to four weeks of using the drops, resulting in all patients experiencing instability without vertigo attacks. After discontinuing the drops and undergoing vestibular rehabilitation, 4 patients experienced sequelae, with 2 patients (both with bilateral vestibular hypofunction) suffering significant impairment in their quality of life. Conclusions: Vestibular ototoxicity due to the topical application of aminoglycosides during acute exacerbations of chronic otitis media is a rare occurrence. However, given its potential for severe consequences and the fact that we are still encountering patients with this condition, healthcare professionals should explore alternative antibacterial agents that offer similar efficacy.

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