Literature and ideas are reviewed concerning the modulation of presbycusis – the influence of variables that can alter the severity and/or time course of presbycusis or counteract its negative aspects. Eleven topics are identified: variables related to biological aging; genetics; noise-induced hearing loss; moderately augmented acoustic environment; neural plasticity and the central auditory system; neural plasticity and hearing aids; socioeconomic and cultural barriers to hearing aid use; lifestyle (diet, exercise, etc.); medical variables; pharmaceutical interventions for presbycusis, and cognitive variables. It is concluded that the field of otogerontology will best be served by a comprehensive, integrative interaction among basic researchers and clinical scientists who will continue to learn how the auditory problems associated with presbycusis can be intentionally modulated in beneficial ways.

Abrams H, Hnath-Chisolm T: Outcome measures: The audiological difference; in Valente M, Hosford-Dunn H, Roeser RJ (eds): Audiology Practice Management. New York, Thieme, 2001, pp 69–96.
Abrams W, Beers M, Berkow R: Merck Manual of Geriatrics, ed 2. Whitehouse Station, Merck, 1995.
Agerman K, Canlon B, Duan M, Erfors P: Neurotrophins, NMDA receptors, and nitric oxide in development and protection of the auditory system. Ann NY Acad Sci 1999;28:131–142.
Alessio H, Hutchinson K: Effects of submaximal exercise and noise exposure on hearing loss. Res Q Exerc Sport 1991;62:413–419.
American Academy of Physicians: American Academy of Family Physicians Commission on Public Health and Scientific Affairs: Age charts for periodic health examinations. Kansas City, 1993.
Arlinger S, Gatehouse S, Bentler RA, Byrne D, Cox RM, Dirks DD, Humes L, Neuman A, Ponton C, Robinson K, Silman S, Summerfield AQ, Turner CW, Tyler RS, Willott JF: Report of the Eriksholm workshop on auditory deprivation and acclimatization. Ear Hear 1996;17:87S–98S.
Ausman LM, Russell RM: Nutrition and aging; in Schneider EL, Rowe JW (eds): Handbook of the Biology of Aging, ed 3. San Diego, Academic Press, 1990, pp 384–406.
Bai U, Seidman MD, Hinojosa R, Quirk WS: Mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging and possibly presbycusis: A human archival temporal bone study. Am J Otol 1997;18:449–453.
Bashore TR: Age-related changes in mental processing revealed by analysis of event-related brain potentials; in Rohrbaugh JW, Parasuraman R, Johnson R (eds): Event-Related Brain Potentials. New York, Oxford University Press, 1990, pp 242–275.
Battey JF: Human hereditary hearing impairment: Research progress fueled by the human genome project and mouse models; in Willott JF (ed): Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, pp 391–400.
Baum-Baicker C: The health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption: A review of the literature. Drug Alcohol Depend 1985;15:207–227.
Berner B, Odum L, Parving A: Age-related hearing impairment and B vitamin status. Acta Otolaryngol 2000;120:633–637.
Birren JE, Fisher LM: Aging and speed of behavior: Possible consequences for psychological functioning. Annu Rev Psychol 1995;46:329–353.
Blass JP: Cerebral metabolic impairments; in Khachaturian ZS, Radenbaugh TS (eds): Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1996, pp187–206.
Blumberg JB: Status and functional impact of nutrition in older adults; in Schneider EL, Rowe JW (eds): Handbook of the Biology of Aging, ed 4. San Diego, Academic Press, 1996, pp 393–414.
Boothroyd A: Recovery of speech perception performance after prolonged auditory deprivation: A case study. J Am Acad Audiol 1993;4:331–336.
Brant LJ, Gordon-Salant S, Pearson JD, Klein LL, Morrell CH, Metter EJ, Fozard JL: Risk factors related to age-associated hearing loss in the speech frequencies. J Am Acad Audiol 1996;7:152–160.
Bronson RT, Lipman RD: Reduction in rate of occurrence of age related lesions in dietary restricted laboratory mice. Growth Dev Aging 1991;55:169–184.
Bunker VW: Free radicals, antioxidants and ageing. Med Lab Sci 1992;49:299–312.
Burkey JM, Arkis AM: Word recognition changes after monaural, binaural amplification. Hear Instr 1993;44:8–9.
Buskirk ER: Health maintenance and longevity: Exercise; in Finch CE, Schneider EL (eds): Handbook of the Biology of Aging, ed 2. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985, pp 894–931.
Calford MB, Rajan R, Irvine DRF: Rapid changes in the frequency tuning of neurons in cat auditory cortex resulting from pure-tone-induced temporary threshold shift. Neuroscience 1993;55:953–964.
Carter AS, Noe CM, Wilson RH: Listeners who prefer monaural to binaural hearing aids. J Am Acad Audiol 2001;2:261–272.
Caspary DM, Milbrandt JC, Helfert RH: Central auditory aging: GABA changes in the inferior colliculus. Exp Gerontol 1995;30:349–360.
Chen X, Federoff HJ, Bowers WJ, Frisina DR, Frisina RD: NT-3 transduction via helper free HSV-amplicon vector prevents aging mouse spiral ganglion cells from cisplatin ototoxicity. Assoc Res Otolaryngol Abstr 2001;24:283.
Chmiel R, Jerger J, Murphy E, Pirozzzolo F, Tooley-Young C: Unsuccessful use of binaural amplification by an elderly person. J Am Acad Audiol 1997;8:1–10.
Cornelise LE, Seewald RC, Jameison DG: The input/output [I/o] formula: A theoretical approach to the fitting of amplification devices. J Acoust Soc Am 1995;97:1854–1864.
Cotman CW: Synaptic plasticity neurotrophic factors and transplantation in the aged brain; in Schneider EL, Rowe W (eds): Handbook of the Biology of Aging, ed 3. San Diego, Academic Press, 1990, pp 255–274.
Cotman CW, Holets VR: Structural changes at synapses with age: Plasticity and regeneration; in Finch CE, Schneider EL (eds): Handbook of the Biology of Aging, ed 2. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985, pp 617–644.
Cotman CW, Neeper S: Activity-dependent plasticity and the aging brain; in Schneider EL, Rowe JW (eds): Handbook of the Biology of Aging, ed 4. San Diego, Academic Press, 1996, pp 284–299.
Cristell M, Hutchinson K, Alessio H: Effects of exercise training on hearing ability. Scand Audiol 1998;27:219–224.
Cruickshanks KJ, Klein R, Klein B, Wiley TL, Nondahl DM, Tweed TS: Cigarette smoking and hearing loss: The epidemiology of hearing loss study. JAMA 1998;279:1715–1719.
Crutcher KA, Weingartner J: Hippocampal NGF levels are not reduced in the aged Fischer 344 rat. Neurobiol Aging 1991;12:449–454.
Dalton DS, Cruickshanks KJ, Klein BE, Wiley TL: Association of NIDDM and hearing loss. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1540–1544.
Davis RR: Noise-induced hearing loss; in Willott JF (ed): Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, pp 477–488.
Dawson R, Wallace DR: Kainic acid-induced seizures in aged rats: Neurochemical correlates. Brain Res Bull 1992;29:459–468.
Dillon H: NAL-NL1: A new procedure for fitting non-linear hearing aids. Hear J 1999;52:10–16.
Ding DL, McFadden SL, Wang J, Hu BH, Salvi RJ: Age- and strain-related differences in dehydrogenase activity and glycogen levels in CBA and C57 mouse cochleas. Audiol Neurootol 1999;4:55–63.
Diplock AT: Will the ‘good fairies’ please prove to us that vitamin E lessens human degenerative disease? Free Radic Res 1997;27:511–532.
Dobie RA: A review of randomized clinical trials in tinnitus. Laryngoscope 1999;109:1201–1211.
Dreschler W, Plomp R: Relations between psychophysical data and speech perception for hearing impaired subjects. II. J Acoust Soc Am 1985;78:1261–1270.
Erway LC, Schiau YW, Davis RR, Krieg EF: Genetics of age-related hearing loss in mice. III. Susceptibility of inbred and F1 hybrid strains to noise-induced hearing loss. Hear Res 1996;93:181–187.
Erway LC, Willott JF: Genetic susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss in mice; in Axelsson A, Borchgrevink HM, Hamernik RP, Hellstron P-A, Henderson D, Salvi RJ (eds): Scientific Basis of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. New York, Thieme, 1996, pp 56–64.
Erway LC, Willott JF, Archer JR, Harrison D: Genetics of age-related hearing loss in mice. I. Inbred and F1 hybrid strains. Hear Res 1993;65:125–132.
Erway LC, Zheng QY, Johnson KR: Inbred strains of mice for genetics of hearing in mammals: Searching for genes for hearing loss; in Willott JF (ed): Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, pp 429–440.
Farrior J: Stapes surgery in geriatrics: Surgery in the nerve deaf otosclerotic. Laryngoscope 1963;73:1084–1098.
Fattoretti P, Bertoni-Freddari C, Caselli U, Paoloni R, Meier-Ruge W: Morphologic changes in cerebellar mitochondria during aging. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 1996;18:205–208.
Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, Penninx BW, Leveille S: Cigarette smoke exposure and hearing loss. JAMA 1998;280:963–964.
Fino M, Bess F, Lichtenstein M, Logan S: Factors differentiating elderly hearing aid wearers and non-wearers. Hear J 1991;49:53–56.
Fischel-Ghodsian N: Mitochondrial deafness mutations reviewed. Hum Mutat 1999;13:261–270.
Fischel-Ghodsian N, Bykhovskaya Y, Taylor K, Kahen T, Cantor R, Ehrenman K, Smith R, Keithley E: Temporal bone analysis of patients with presbycusis reveals high frequency of mitochondrial mutations. Hear Res 1997;110:147–154.
Flood DG: Critical issues in the analysis of dendritic extent in aging humans, primates and rodents. Neurobiol Aging 1993;14:649–654.
Friedman LA, Kimball AW: Coronary heart disease mortality and alcohol consumption in Framingham. Am J Epidemiol 1986;124:481–489.
Frisina RD: Anatomical and neurochemical bases of presbycusis; in Hoff PR, Mobbs CV (eds): Functional Neurobiology of Aging. San Diego, Academic Press, 2001, pp 531–547.
Frisina DR, Frisina RD: Speech recognition in noise and presbycusis: Relations to possible neural mechanisms. Hear Res 1997;106:95–104.
Frisina DR, Frisina RD, Snell KB, Burkard R, Walton JP, Ison JR: Auditory temporal processing during aging; in Hoff PR, Mobbs CV (eds): Functional Neurobiology of Aging. San Diego, Academic Press, 2001, pp 565–579.
Frisina RD, Walton JP: Aging of the mouse central auditory system; in Willott JF (ed): Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, pp 339–380.
Gacek MR, Schuknecht HF: Pathology of presbycusis. Int Audiol 1969;8:199–209.
Gantz B, Tyler R, Knutson J, Woodworth G, Abbas P, McCabe B, Hinrichs J, Tye-Murray N, Lansing C, Kuk F, Brown C: Evaluation of five different cochlear implant designs: Audiologic assessment and prediction of performance. Laryngoscope 1988;98:100–1106.
Gao WQ: Therapeutic potential of neurotrophins for treatment of hearing loss. Mol Neurobiol 1998;7:17–31.
Gatehouse S, Lowe GD: Whole blood viscosity and red cell filterability as factors in sensorineural hearing impairment in the elderly. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl (Stockh) 1990;476:37–43.
Gates G, Cobb J, D’Agostino R, Wolf P: The relation of hearing in the elderly to the presence of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1993;119:156–161.
Gates G, Couropmitree NN, Myers RH: Genetic associations in age-related hearing thresholds. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125:654–659.
Gelfand SA: Long term recovery and no recovery from the auditory deprivation effect with binaural amplification. J Am Acad Audiol 1995;6:141–149.
Golabek W, Niedzielska G: Audiological investigation of chronic alcoholics. Clin Otolaryngol 1984;9:257–261.
Goldberg AP, Dengel DR, Hagberg JM: Exercise physiology and aging; in Schneider EL, Rowe JW (eds): Handbook of the Biology of Aging, ed 4. San Diego, Academic Press, 1996, pp 331–354.
Goldberg AP, Hagberg JM: Physical exercise in the elderly; in Schneider EL, Rowe W (eds): Handbook of the Biology of Aging, ed 3. San Diego, Academic Press, 1990, pp 407–428.
Gomberg ESL: Alcohol and drugs; in Birren JE (ed): Encyclopedia of Gerontology. San Diego, Academic Press, 1996, vol 1, pp 93–101.
Gomez-Pinilla F, Cotman CW, Nieto-Samedro M: NGF receptor immunoreactivity in aged rat brain. Brain Res 1989;479:255–262.
Goodwin JS, Goodwin JM, Garry PJ: Association between nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a healthy elderly population. JAMA 1983;249:2917–2921.
Gordon-Salant S: Hearing; in Birren JE (ed): Encyclopedia of Gerontology. San Diego, Academic Press, 1996, vol 1, pp 643–653.
Gordon-Salant S, Fitzgibbons PJ: Selected cognitive factors and speech recognition performance among young and elderly listeners. J Speech Lang Hear Res 1997;40:423–431.
Halling DC, Humes LE: Factors affecting the recognition of reverberant speech by elderly listeners. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2000;43:414–431.
Harman D: Role of antioxidant nutrients in aging: Overview. Age 1995;18:51–62.
Hartley AA: Attention; in Craik FIM, Salthouse TA (eds): The Handbook of Aging and Cognition. Hillsdale, Erlbaum, 1992, pp 3–50.
Hayflick L: How and Why We Age. New York, Ballantine, 1996.
Henry KR: Effects of dietary restriction on presbyacusis in the mouse. Audiology 1986;25:329–337.
Houston DK, Johnson MA, Nozza RJ, Gunter EW, Shea KJ, Cutler GM, Edmonds JT: Age related hearing loss, vitamin B-12, and folate in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:564–571.
Humes LE, Watson BU, Christensen LA, Cokely CG, Halling DC, Lee L: Factors associated with individual differences in clinical measures of speech recognition among the elderly. J Speech Hear Res 1994;37:465–474.
Hurley RM: Monaural hearing aid effect: Case presentations. J Am Acad Audiol 1993;4:285–295.
Hutchinson K, Alessio H, Spadafore M, Adair R: Effects of low-intensity exercise and noise exposure on temporary threshold shift. Scand Audiol 1991;20:121–127.
Ison JR, Walton JP, Frisina RD, O’Neill WE: Focus: Elicitation and inhibition of the startle reflex by acoustic transients: Studies of age-related changes in temporal processing; in Willott JF (ed): Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, pp 381–388.
Jerger J: Can age-related decline in speech understanding be explained by peripheral hearing loss? J Am Acad Audiol 1992;3:33–38.
Jerger J: ALD use in the elderly: A speech test than can help us predict success. Hear J 1996;49:19,72–75.
Jeskey JE, Willott JF: Modulation of prepulse inhibition in the DBA/2J mice by an augmented acoustic environment. Behav Neurosci 2000;114:991–997.
Johnson KR, Erway LC, Cook SA, Willott JF, Zheng QY: A major gene affecting age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice. Hear Res 1997;114:83–92.
Johnson KR, Zheng QY, Erway LC: A major gene affecting age-related hearing loss is common to at least ten inbred strains of mice. Genomics 2000;70:171–80.
Johnson KR, Zheng QY, Letts VA: Genetic analysis of non-transgenic mouse mutations affecting ear morphology or function; in Willott JF (ed): Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, pp 401–428.
Joseph JA: The putative role of free radicals in the loss of neuronal functioning in senescence. Integr Physiol Behav Sci 1992;27:216–227.
Kaas JH: Plasticity of sensory and motor maps in adult mammals. Annu Rev Neurosci 1991;14:137–168.
Kadenbach B, Munscher C, Frank V, Muller-Hocker J, Napiwotzki J: Human aging is associated with stochastic somatic mutations of mitochondrial DNA. Mutat Res 1995;338:162–172.
Kenny R: Physiology of aging: in Shadden B (ed): Communication Behavior and Aging. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1988, pp 58–78.
Kileny P, Zimmerman-Phillips S, Kemink J, Schmaltz S: Effects of preoperative electrical stimulability and historical factors on performance with multichannel cochlear implants. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1991;100:563–568.
Kirkwood TBL: Times of Our Lives: The Science of Human Aging. New York, Oxford University Press, 1999.
Kochkin S: MarkeTrak III: The billion dollar opportunity in the hearing instruments market. Hear J 1992;45:2–7.
Kochkin S: Optimizing the emerging market for completely-in-the-canal instruments. Hear J 1994;47:1–6.
Kochkin S: MarkeTrak IV: What is the viable market for hearing aids? Hear J 1997;50:31–39.
Koehnke JD, Besing JM: The effects of aging on binaural and spatial hearing. Semin Hear 2001;22:241–253.
Kolkhorst F, Smaldino J, Wolf S, Battani L, Plakke B, Huddleston S, Hensley L: Influence of fitness on susceptibility to noise-induced temporary threshold shift. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:289–293.
Korper S: Epidemiologic and demographic characteristics of the aging population; in Goldstein J, Kashima H, Koopmann C (eds): Geriatric Otorhinolaryngology. Toronto, Decker, 1989, pp 19–28.
Kraus N, McGee T, Carrell T, Zecker S, Nicol T, Koch D: Auditory neurophysiologic responses and discrimination deficits in children with learning problems. J Cogn Neurosci 1995;7:25–32.
Kuang R, Hever G, Zajic G, Yan Q, Collins F, Louis JC, Keithley E, Magal E: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor: Potential for otoprotection. Ann NY Acad Sci 1999;884:270–291.
Kugler CFA, Taghavy A, Platt D: The event-related P300 potential analysis of cognitive human brain aging: A review. Gerontology 1993;39:280–303.
Larson VD, Williams DW, Henderson WG, Luethke LE, Beck LB, Noffsinger D, Wilson RH, Dobie RA, Haskell GB, Bratt GW, Shanks JE, Stelmachowicz P, Studebaker GA, Boysen AE, Donahue A, Canalis R, Fausti SA, Rappaport BZ: Efficacy of 3 commonly used hearing aid circuits: A crossover trial. NIDCD/VA Hearing Aid Clinical Trial Group. JAMA 2000;284:1806–1813.
Leake PA, Hradek GT, Snyder RL: Chronic electrical stimulation by a cochlear implant promotes survival of spiral ganglion neurons after neonatal deafness. J Comp Neurol 1999;412:543–562.
Li HS: Influence of genotype and age on acute acoustic trauma and recovery in CBA/Ca and C57BL/6J mice. Acta Otolaryngol 1992;112 956–967.
Lim DP, Stephens SD: Clinical investigation of hearing loss in the elderly. Clin Otolaryngol 1991;16:288–293.
Lister JJ, Koehnke JD, Besing JM: Effects of age and reverberation on binaural gap duration discrimination. Assoc Res Otolaryngol Abstr 1999;119:30.
Lister JJ, Koehnke JD, Besing JM: Binaural gap duration discrimination in listeners with impaired hearing and normal hearing. Ear Hear 2000;21:141–150.
McDougall GJ Jr: Cognitive interventions among older adults. Annu Rev Nurs Res 1999;17:219–240.
McFadden SL, Campo P: Cubic distortion product otoacoustic emissions in young and aged chinchillas exposed to low-frequency noise. J Acoust Soc Am 1998;104:2290–2297.
McFadden SL, Campo P, Ding D, Quaranta N: Effects of noise on inferior colliculus evoked potentials and cochlear anatomy in young and aged chinchillas. Hear Res 1998;117:81–96.
McFadden SL, Ding D, Burkard RF, Jiang H, Reaume AG, Flood DG, Salvi RJ: Cu/Zn SOD deficiency potentiates hearing loss and cochlear pathology in aged 129,CD-1 mice. J Comp Neurol 1999a;413:101–112.
McFadden SL, Ding D, Reaume AG, Flood DG, Salvi RJ: Age-related cochlear hair cell loss is enhanced in mice lacking copper/zinc superoxide dismutase. Neurobiol Aging 1999b;20:1–8.
McFadden SM, Willott JF: Interaction of ageing and noise induced hearing loss; in Luxon LM, Prasher D (eds): Noise and Its Effects. London, Whurr, 2001, in press.
Madden DJ, Allen PA: Attention; in Birren JE (ed): Encyclopedia of Gerontology. San Diego, Academic Press, 1996, vol 1, pp 131–140.
Malgrange B, Rigo JM, Van de Water TR, Staecker H, Moonen G, Lefebvre PP: Growth factor therapy to the damaged inner ear: Clinical prospects. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1999;49:S19–25.
Manson J, Alessio H, Cristell M, Hutchinson K: Does cardiovascular health mediate hearing ability? Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994:26:866–871.
Martin BA, Sigal A, Kurzberg D, Stapells DR: The effects of decreased audibility produced by high-pass noise masking on cortical event-related potential to speech sounds /ba/ and /da/. J Acoust Soc Am 1997;101:1585–1599.
Martinez M, Hernandez AI, Martinez N, Ferrandiz ML: Age-related increases in oxidized proteins in mouse synaptic mitochondria. Brain Res 1996;731:246–248.
Miller JM, Chi DH, O’Keeffe LJ, Kruszka P, Raphael Y, Altschuler RA: Neurotrophins can enhance spiral ganglion cell survival after inner hair cell loss. Int J Dev Neurosci 1997;15:631–643.
Miller JM, Dolan DF, Raphael Y, Altschuler RA: Interactive effects of aging with noise induced hearing loss. Scand Audiol Suppl 1998;48:53–61.
Mills JH, Boettcher FA, Dubno JR: Interaction of noise-induced permanent threshold shift and age-related threshold shift. J Acoust Soc Am 1997;101:1681–1686.
Mills JH, Lee F-S, Dubno JR, Boettcher FA: Interactions between age-related and noise-induced hearing loss; in Axelsson A, Borchgrevink HM, Hamernik RP, Hellstron P-A, Henderson D, Salvi RJ (eds): Scientific Basis of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. New York, Thieme, 1996, pp 193–212.
Mills JH, Matthews LJ, Lee FS, Dubno JR, Schulte BA, Weber PC: Gender-specific effects of drugs on hearing levels of older persons. Ann NY Acad Sci 1999;884:381–388.
Mo JQ, Hom DG, Andersen JK: Decreases in protective enzymes correlate with increased oxidative damage in the aging mouse brain. Mech Aging Dev 1995;81:73–82.
Moore RD, Pearson TA: Moderate alcohol consumption and coronary artery disease: A review. Medicine (Baltimore) 1986;65:242–267.
Mullin LM, Ryan AF: Transgenic mice: Genome manipulation and induced mutations; in Willott JF (ed): Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, pp 457–474.
Mulrow C, Aguilar C, Endicott J, Tuley M: Quality of life changes and hearing impairment: Results of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:188–194.
Nagy JL, Adelstein DJ, Newman CW, Rybicki LA, Rice TW, Lavertu P: Cisplatin ototoxicity: The importance of baseline audiometry. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:305–308.
Neuman A: Late-onset auditory deprivation: A review of past research and an assessment of future research needs. Ear Hear 1996;17:3S–13S.
Nishizuka M, Katoh-Semba R, Eto Y, Arai Y, Iizuka R, Kato K: Age- and sex-related differences in the nerve growth factor distribution in the rat brain. Brain Res Bull 1991;27:685–688.
Noorhassim I, Rampal K: Multiplicative effect of smoking and age on hearing impairment. Am J Otolaryngol 1998;19:240–243.
Ostroff JM, Martin B, Boothroyd A: Cortical responses to acoustic change within a syllable. Ear Hear 1998;19:290–297.
Palombi PS, Caspary DM: Physiology of the aging Fischer 344 rat inferior colliculus: Responses to contralateral monaural stimuli. J Neurophysiol 1996a;76:3114–3125.
Palombi PS, Caspary DM: Responses of young and aged Fischer 344 rat inferior colliculus neurons to binaural tonal stimuli. Hear Res 1996b;100:59–67.
Park JC, Cook KC, Verde EA: Dietary restriction slows the abnormally rapid loss of spiral ganglion neurons in C57BL/6 mice. Hear Res 1990;48:275–280.
Pearson JD, Morrell CH, Gordon-Salant S, Brant LJ, Metter EJ, Klein LL, Fozard JL: Gender differences in a longitudinal study of age-associated hearing loss. J Acoust Soc Am 1995;97:1196–1205.
Pirodda A, Ferri GG, Modugno GC, Gaddi A: Hypotension and sensorineural hearing loss: A possible correlation. Acta Otolaryngol 1999;119:758–762.
Popelka M, Cruickshanks K, Wiley T, Tweed T, Klein B, Klein R, Nondahl D: Moderate alcohol consumption and hearing loss: A protective effect. JAGS 2000;48:1273–1278.
Puel JL, d’Aldin C, Ruel J, Ladrech S, Pujol R: Synaptic repair mechanisms responsible for functional recovery in various cochlear pathologies. Acta Otolaryngol 1997;117:214–218.
Rajan R, Irvine DRF, Wise LZ, Heil P: Effect of unilateral partial lesions in adult cats on the representation of lesioned and unlesioned cochleas in primary auditory cortex. J Comp Neurol 1993;338:17–49.
Reese J: The Influence of a Brief counseling intervention and Framing on Perception of Hearing Handicap and Intention to Use Hearing Aids in Elderly Veterans; unpublished master’s thesis University of South Florida, Tampa, 1997.
Reese J: Cognitive Factors in Hearing Aid Delivery; unpublished doct diss University of South Florida, Tampa, 2001.
Robertson D, Irvine DRF: Plasticity of frequency organization in auditory cortex of guinea pigs with partial unilateral deafness. J Comp Neurol 1989;282:456–471.
Rosenberg IH, Miller JW: Nutritional factors in physical and cognitive functions of elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55(suppl 6):1237S–1234S.
Rowe JW, Kahn RL: Human aging: Usual and successful. Science 1987;237:143–149.
Schaie KW: Intellectual development in adulthood; in Birren JE, Schaie KW (eds): Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, ed 4. San Diego, Academic Press, 1996, pp 266–286.
Schneider EL, Reed JD: Modulations of aging processes; in Schneider EL, Rowe W (eds): Handbook of the Biology of Aging, ed 3. San Diego, Academic Press, 1990, pp 45–76.
Schwaber MK, Garraghty PE, Kaas JH: Neuroplasticity of the adult primary auditory cortex following cochlear hearing loss. Am J Otolaryngol 1993;14:252–258.
Seidman MD: Effects of dietary restriction and antioxidants on presbyacusis. Laryngoscope 2000;110:727–738.
Seidman MD, Bai U, Khan MJ, Murphy MJ, Quirk WS, Castora FL, Hinojosa R: Association of mitochondrial DNA deletions and cochlear pathology: A molecular biologic tool. Laryngoscope 1996a;106:777–783.
Seidman MD, Bai U, Khan MJ, Quirk WS: Mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging and presbyacusis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;123:1039–1045.
Seidman MD, Khan MJ, Bai U, Shirwany N, Quirk WS: Biological activity of mitochondrial metabolites on aging and age-related hearing loss. Am J Otol 2000;21:161–167.
Seidman MD, Khan MJ, Dolan DF, Quirk WS: Age-related differences in cochlear microcirculation and auditory brain stem response. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1996b;122:1221–1226.
Sharma A, Dorman M: Central auditory evoked potential correlates of categorical perception of voice onset time. J Acoust Soc Am 1999;106:1078–1083.
Sharma A, Dorman M: Neurophysiologic correlates of cross-language phonetic perception. J Acoust Soc Am 2000;107:2697–2703.
Shoji F, Miller AL, Mitchell A, Yamasoba T, Altschuler RA, Miller JM: Differential protective effects of neurotrophins in the attenuation of noise-induced hearing loss. Hear Res 2000;146:134–142.
Shulman A: Neuroprotective drug therapy: A medical and pharmacological treatment for tinnitus control. Int Tinnitus J 1997;3:77–93.
Silman S, Gelfand SA, Silverman CA: Late onset auditory deprivation: Effects of monaural versus binaural hearing aids. J Acoust Soc Am 1984;76:1357–1362.
Silverman CA, Silman S: Apparent auditory deprivation from monaural amplification and recovery with binaural amplification. J Am Acad Audiol 1990;1:175–180.
Skafte M: The 1995 hearing instrument market – the dispenser’s perspective. Hear Rev 1999;6:6–26.
Snell K: Age-related changes in temporal gap detection. J Acoust Soc Am 1997;101:2214–2220.
Snell KB, Frisina DR: Relationships among age-related differences in gap detection and word recognition. J Acoust Soc Am 2000;107:1615–1626.
Staecker H, Apfel S, Van de Water TR: The role of neurotrophic factors in the development and maintenance of innervation in the mouse inner ear; in Willott JF (ed): Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, pp 157–170.
Steel KP, Erven A, Kiernan AE: Mice as models for human hereditary deafness; in Keats B, Popper A, Fay R (eds): Genetics and Auditory Disorders. New York, Springer, 2001, pp 100–130.
Strouse A, Ashmead D, Ohde R, Grantham W: Temporal processing in the aging auditory system. J Acoust Soc Am 1998;104:2385–2399.
Sun JC, Bohne BA, Harding GW: Is the older ear more susceptible to noise damage? Laryngoscope 1994;104:1251–1258.
Sweet RJ, Price JM, Henry KR: Dietary restriction and presbycusis: Periods of restriction and auditory threshold losses in the CBA/J mouse. Audiology 1988;27:305–312.
Tallal P, Miller SL, Bedi G, Byma G, Wang X, Nagarajan SS, Schreiner C, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM: Language comprehension in language-learning impaired children improved with acoustically modified speech. Science 1996;271:81–84.
Tremblay K, Kraus N, Carrell T, McGee T: Central auditory system plasticity: Generalization to novel stimuli following listening training. J Acoust Soc Am 1997;102:3762–3773.
Tremblay K, Kraus N, McGee T: The time course of auditory perceptual learning: Neurophysiologic changes during speech-sound training. Neuroreport 1998;9:3557–3560.
Tremblay K, Kraus N, McGee T, Ponton C, Otis B: Central auditory plasticity: Changes in the N1-P2 complex after speech-sound training. Ear Hear 2001;22:79–90.
Trune D: Mouse models for immunologic diseases of the auditory system; in Willott JF (ed): Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, pp 505–532.
Tsukasaki N, Whitworth CA, Rybak LP: Acute changes in cochlear potentials due to cisplatin. Hear Res 2000;149:189–198.
Tucker DM, Penland JG, Sandstead HH, Milne DB, Heck DG, Klevay LM: Nutritional status and brain function in aging. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:93–102.
Turner JG, Willott JF: Exposure to an augmented acoustic environment alters auditory function in hearing-impaired DBA/2J mice. Hear Res 1998;118:101–113.
Tyler R, Summerfield Q, Wood E, Fernandes M: Psychoacoustic and phonetic temporal processing in normal and hearing impaired listeners. J Acoust Soc Am 1982;72:740–752.
Ueda N, Oshima T, Ikeda K, Abe K, Aoki M, Takasaka T: Mitochondrial DNA deletion is a predisposing cause for sensorineural hearing loss. Laryngoscope 1998;108:580–584.
US Department of Health and Human Services: Healthy People 2000: National health promotion and disease prevention objectives. Boston, Jones & Bartlett, 1992.
US Department of Health and Human Services: Profile of older Americans. Prepared by the Program Resources Department. American Association of Retired Persons (AARO) and the Administration on Aging (AOA), 1997.
Walton JP, Frisina RD, O’Neill WE: Age-related alteration in neural processing of silent gaps in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in the CBA mouse model of presbycusis. J Neurosci 1998;18:2764–2776.
Waltzman S, Cohen N: Implantation of patients with prelingual long-term deafness. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 1999;177:84–87.
Waltzman S, Fisher S, Niparko J, Cohen N: Predictors of postoperative performance with cochlear implants. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 1995;165:15–18.
Ward JA: Should antioxidant vitamins be routinely recommended for older people? Drugs Aging 1998;12:169–175.
von Wedel H, von Wedel UC, Streppel M: Fine structure analysis of speech signals: Hearing aids and perceptual training. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 1990;469:236–244.
Weindruch R, Walford RL, Fligiel S, Guthrie D: The retardation of aging in mice by dietary restriction: Longevity, cancer, immunity and lifetime energy intake. J Nutr 1986;116:641–654.
Weinstein B: Hearing screening in the elderly: What to do? Am Speech Lang Hear Assoc Rep 1992;21:110–112.
Weinstein B: Treatment efficacy: Hearing aids in the management of hearing loss in adults. J Speech Hear Res 1996;39:535–543.
Weinstein BF: Geriatric Audiology. New York, Thieme, 2000.
Wheeler DC, Dewolfe AS, Rausch MA: Audiometric configuration in patients being treated for alcoholism. Drug Alcohol Depend 1980;5:63–68.
White J, Regan M: Otologic considerations; in Mueller G, Geoffrey V (eds): Communication Disorders in Aging. Washington, Gallaudet University Press, 1987.
Willott JF: Aging and the Auditory System: Anatomy, Physiology and Psychophysics. San Diego, Singular, 1991.
Willott JF: Auditory system plasticity in the adult C57BL/6J mouse; in Salvi RJ, Henderson DH, Colletti V, Fiorino F (eds): Auditory Plasticity and Regeneration. New York, Thieme, 1996a, pp 297–316.
Willott JF: Aging and the auditory system; in Mohr U, Dungworth DL, Capen CC, Carlton WW, Sundberg JP, Ward JM (eds): Pathobiology of the Aging Mouse. ILSI Monogr on the Pathobiol Aging Animals. Washington, ILSI Press, 1996b, pp 179–204.
Willott JF: Physiological plasticity in the auditory system and its possible relevance to hearing aid use, deprivation effects, and acclimatization. Ear Hear 1996c;17:66S–77S.
Willott JF: Neurogerontology: Aging and the Nervous System. New York, Springer, 1999.
Willott JF, Aitkin LM, McFadden SM: Plasticity of auditory cortex associated with sensorineural hearing loss in adult C57BL/6J mice. J Comp Neurol 1993;329:402–411.
Willott JF, Bross LS, McFadden SL: Morphology of the cochlear nucleus in CBA/J mice with chronic severe sensorineural cochlear pathology induced during adulthood. Hear Res 1994;74:1–21.
Willott JF, Erway LC, Archer JR, Harrison DE: Genetics of age-related hearing loss in mice. II. Strain differences and effects of caloric restriction on cochlear pathology and evoked response thresholds. Hear Res 1995;65:125–132.
Willott JF, Milbrandt JC, Bross LS, Caspary DM: Glycine immunoreactivity and receptor binding in the cochlear nucleus of C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ mice: Effects of cochlear impairment and aging. J Comp Neurol 1997;385:405–414.
Willott JF, Sundin V, Jeskey J: Effects of an augmented acoustic environment on the mouse auditory system; in Willott JF (ed): Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, pp 205–214.
Willott JF, Turner JG: Prolonged exposure to an augmented acoustic environment ameliorates age-related auditory changes in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Hear Res 1999;135:78–88.
Willott JF, Turner JG: Neural plasticity in the mouse inferior colliculus: Relationship to hearing loss, augmented acoustic stimulation, and prepulse inhibition. Hear Res 2000;147:275–281.
Willott JF, Turner JG, Sundin VS: Effects of exposure to an augmented acoustic environment on auditory function in mice: Roles of hearing loss and age during treatment. Hear Res 2000;142:79–88.
Young AB: Causes of Alzheimer’s disease; in Khachaturian ZS, Radenbaugh TS (eds): Alzheimer’s Disease: Cause(s), Diagnosis, Treatment, and Care. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1996, pp 227–232.
Zawia N, Arendash GW, Wecker L: Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in aged rat brain are more susceptible to ibotenate-induced degeneration than neurons in young adult brain. Brain Res 1992;589:333–337.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.