Literature and ideas are reviewed concerning the modulation of presbycusis – the influence of variables that can alter the severity and/or time course of presbycusis or counteract its negative aspects. Eleven topics are identified: variables related to biological aging; genetics; noise-induced hearing loss; moderately augmented acoustic environment; neural plasticity and the central auditory system; neural plasticity and hearing aids; socioeconomic and cultural barriers to hearing aid use; lifestyle (diet, exercise, etc.); medical variables; pharmaceutical interventions for presbycusis, and cognitive variables. It is concluded that the field of otogerontology will best be served by a comprehensive, integrative interaction among basic researchers and clinical scientists who will continue to learn how the auditory problems associated with presbycusis can be intentionally modulated in beneficial ways.

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