The objective of the present study was to investigate the possible electrophysiological time-related changes in auditory pathway during mobile phone electromagnetic field exposure. Thirty healthy rabbits were enrolled in an experimental study of exposure to GSM-900 radiation for 60 min and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded at regular time-intervals during exposure. The study subjects were radiated via an adjustable power and frequency radio transmitter for GSM-900 mobile phone emission simulation, designed and manufactured according to the needs of the experiment. The mean absolute latency of waves III–V showed a statistically significant delay (p < 0.05) after 60, 45 and 15 min of exposure to electromagnetic radiation of 900 MHz, respectively. Interwave latency I–III was found to be prolonged after 60 min of radiation exposure in correspondence to wave III absolute latency delay. Interwave latencies I–V and III–V were found with a statistically significant delay (p < 0.05) after 30 min of radiation. No statistically significant delay was found for the same ABR parameters in recordings from the ear contralateral to the radiation source at 60 min radiation exposure compared with baseline ABR. The ABR measurements returned to baseline recordings 24 h after the exposure to electromagnetic radiation of 900 MHz. The prolongation of interval latencies I–V and III–V indicates that exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone can affect the normal electrophysiological activity of the auditory system, and these findings fit the pattern of general responses to a stressor.

1.
Arai N, Enomoto H, Okabe S, Yuasa K, Kamimura Y, Ugawa Y: Thirty minutes mobile phone use has no short-term adverse effects on central auditory pathways. Clin Neurophysiol 2003;114:1390–1394.
2.
Aran JM, Carrere N, Chalan Y, Dulou PE, Larrieu S, Letenneur L, Veyret B, Dulon D: Effects of exposure of the ear to GSM microwaves: in vivo and in vitro experimental studies. Int J Audiol 2004;43:545–554.
3.
Bamiou DE, Ceranic B, Cox R, Watt H, Chadwick P, Luxon LM: Mobile telephone use effects on peripheral audiovestibular function: a case-control study. Bioelectromagnetics 2008;29:108–117.
4.
Blank M, Goodman R: Electromagnetic initiation of transcription at specific DNA sites. J Cell Biochem 2001;81:689–692.
5.
Blank M, Goodman R: A biological guide for electromagnetic safety: the stress response. Bioelectromagnetics 2004;25:642–648.
6.
Callejo Garcia F, Pena Santamaria J, Alonso Castaneira I, Sebastian Gil E, Marco Algarra J: Hearing level and intensive use of mobile phones. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2005;56:187–191.
7.
Davidson HC, Lutman ME: Survey of mobile phone use and their chronic effects on the hearing of a student population. Int J Audiol 2007;46:113–118.
8.
Fickinger S, Lumio M: Telecommunications in Europe, 2006; in: Population and Social Conditions. Eurostat, Annual Telecommunications Inquiry 2007. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home/.
9.
Galloni P, Lovisolo GA, Mancini S, Parazzini M, Pinto R, Piscitelli M, Ravazzani P, Marino C: Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields exposure on cochlear cells’ functionality in rats: evaluation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Bioelectromagnetics 2005;26:536–547.
10.
Grisanti G, Parlapiano C, Tamburello CC, Tine G, Zanforlin L: Cellular phone effects on otoacoustic emissions. IEEE MTTS Int Microw Symp 1998;2:771–774.
11.
Hansson MH, Hardell L, Carlberg M: Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997–2003. Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2007;13:63–71.
12.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K: Epidemiological evidence for an association between use of wireless phones and tumor diseases. Pathophysiology 2009;16:113–122.
13.
Inagaki M, Kaga M, Isumi H, Hirano S, Takashima S, Nanba E: Hypoxia-induced ABR change and heat shock protein expression in the pontine auditory pathway of young rabbits. Brain Res 1997;757:111–118.
14.
Janssen T, Boege P, von Mikusch-Buchberg J, Raczek J: Investigation of potential effects of cellular phones on human auditory function by means of distortion product otoacoustic emissions. J Acoust Soc Am 2005;117:1241–1247.
15.
Joubert V, Leveque P, Rametti A, Collin A, Bourthoumieu S, Yardin C: Microwave exposure of neuronal cells in vitro: study of apoptosis. Int J Radiat Biol 2006;82:267–275.
16.
Kaprana AE, Karatzanis AD, Prokopakis EP, Panagiotaki IE, Vardiambasis IO, Adamidis G, Christodoulou P, Velegrakis GA: Studying the effects of mobile phone use on the auditory system and the central nervous system: a review of the literature and future directions. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2008;265:1011–1019.
17.
Kellenyi L, Thuroczy G, Faludy B, Lenard L: Effects of mobile GSM radiotelephone exposure on the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Neurobiology (Bp) 1999;7:79–81.
18.
Lin H, Blank M, Rossol-Haseroth K, Goodman R: Regulating genes with electromagnetic response elements. J Cell Biochem 2001;81:143–148.
19.
Lin H, Opler M, Head M, Blank M, Goodman R: Electromagnetic field exposure induces rapid, transitory heat shock factor activation in human cells. J Cell Biochem 1997;66:482–488.
20.
Louhimies S: Directive 86/609/EEC on the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. Altern Lab Anim 2002;30:217–219.
21.
Monnery PM, Srouji EI, Bartlett J: Is cochlear outer hair cell function affected by mobile telephone radiation? Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 2004;29:747–749.
22.
Mora R, Crippa B, Mora F, Dellepiane M: A study of the effects of cellular telephone microwave radiation on the auditory system in healthy men. Ear Nose Throat J 2006;85:160, 162–163.
23.
Oktay MF, Dasdag S: Effects of intensive and moderate cellular phone use on hearing function. Electromagn Biol Med 2006;25:13–21.
24.
Olsen J: Mobile phones and health. Scand J Public Health 2009;37:1–3.
25.
Parazzini M, Bell S, Thuroczy G, Molnar F, Tognola G, Lutman ME, Ravazzani P: Influence on the mechanisms of generation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions of mobile phone exposure. Hear Res 2005;208:68–78.
26.
Sanchez S, Milochau A, Ruffie G, Poulletier de Gannes F, Lagroye I, Haro E, Surleve-Bazeille JE, Billaudel B, Lassegues M, Veyret B: Human skin cell stress response to GSM-900 mobile phone signals: in vitro study on isolated primary cells and reconstructed epidermis. FEBS J 2006;273:5491–5507.
27.
Sievert U, Eggert S, Pau HW: Can mobile phone emissions affect auditory functions of cochlea or brain stem? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005;132:451–455.
28.
Stieve M, Mojallal H, Winter M, Battmer R, Lenarz T: Normative auditory brainstem response data for hearing threshold in the rabbit. Audiol Neurootol 2006;11:310–317.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.