Objective: To evaluate the development of speech perception and auditory skills after cochlear implantation in deaf children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection diagnosed based on the presence of CMV DNA in the neonatal urine. Study Design: A prospective study of congenital CMV infection was done between 1996 and 2003. Of 18 children diagnosed with congenital CMV infection, 2 deaf children with asymptomatic CMV infections received cochlear implantation. Results: The 2 deaf children who received cochlear implantation had delayed-onset, progressive sensorineural hearing loss on follow-up audiometric examinations administered at 29 and 39 months of age. After cochlear implantation, their Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores increased consistently during 36 months of follow-up; these results were similar to those of 5 congenitally deaf children without CMV infection who had cochlear implantation. Conclusions: Cochlear implantation was effective for improving the development of speech perception and auditory skills in deaf children with asymptomatic congenital CMV infection. There was no significant difference in the development of useful auditory integration between our general pediatric cochlear implant population without CMV infection and those with asymptomatic CMV infection.

Hagay ZJ, Biran G, Ornoy A, Reece EA: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: a long-standing problem still seeking a solution. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174:241–245.
Stagno S, Pass RF, Cloud G, Britt WJ, Henderson RE, Walton PD, et al: Primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy. Incidence, transmission to fetus, and clinical outcome. JAMA 1986;256:1904–1908.
Pass RF, Stagno S, Myers GJ, Alford CA: Outcome of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection: results of long-term longitudinal follow-up. Pediatrics 1980;66:758–762.
Kimberlin DW, Lin CY, Sanchez PJ, Demmler GJ, Dankner W, Shelton M, et al: Effect of ganciclovir therapy on hearing in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus disease involving the central nervous system: a randomized, controlled trial. J Pediatr 2003;143:16–25.
Yow MD, Williamson DW, Leeds LJ, Thompson P, Woodward RM, Walmus BF, et al: Epidemiologic characteristics of cytomegalovirus infection in mothers and their infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;158:1189–1195.
Williamson WD, Demmler GJ, Percy AK, Catlin FI: Progressive hearing loss in infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics 1992;90:862–866.
Hicks T, Fowler K, Richardson M, Dahle A, Adams L, Pass R: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection and neonatal auditory screening. J Pediatr 1993;123:779–782.
Fowler KB, McCollister FP, Dahle AJ, Boppana S, Britt WJ, Pass RF: Progressive and fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss in children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. J Pediatr 1997;130:624–630.
Dahle AJ, Fowler KB, Wright JD, Boppana SB, Britt WJ, Pass RF: Longitudinal investigation of hearing disorders in children with congenital cytomegalovirus. J Am Acad Audiol 2000;11:283–290.
Fowler KB, Dahle AJ, Boppana SB, Pass RF: Newborn hearing screening: will children with hearing loss caused by congenital cytomegalovirus infection be missed? J Pediatr 1999;135:60–64.
Ramirez Inscoe JM, Nikolopoulos TP: Cochlear implantation in children deafened by cytomegalovirus: speech perception and speech intelligibility outcomes. Otol Neurotol 2004;25:479–482.
Lee DJ, Lustig L, Sampson M, Chinnici J, Niparko JK: Effects of cytomegalovirus (CMV) related deafness on pediatric cochlear implant outcomes. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005;133:900–905.
Pyman B, Blamey P, Lacy P, Clark G, Dowell R: The development of speech perception in children using cochlear implants: effects of etiologic factors and delayed milestones. Am J Otol 2000;21:57–61.
Williamson WD, Desmond MM, LaFevers N, Taber LH, Catlin FI, Weaver TG: Symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus. Disorders of language, learning, and hearing. Am J Dis Child 1982;136:902–905.
Iwasaki S, Yamashita M, Maeda M, Misawa K, Mineta H: Audiological outcome of infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection in a prospective study. Audiol Neurotol 2007;12:31–36.
Joint Committee on Infant Hearing 1994 Position Statement. Pediatrics 1995;95:152–156.
Ross SA, Novak Z, Kumbla RA, Zhang K, Fowler KB, Boppana S: GJB2 and GJB6 mutations in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatr Res 2007;61:687–691.
Zimmerman-Phillips S, Robbins AM, Osberger MJ: Assessing cochlear implant benefit in very young children. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2000;109:42–44.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.