Background: Closed-loop neurostimulation is a novel alternative therapy for medically intractable focal epilepsy for patients who are not candidates for surgical resection of a seizure focus. Electrodes for this system can be implanted either within the brain parenchyma or in the subdural space. The electrodes then serve the dual role of detecting seizures and delivering an electrical signal aimed at aborting seizure activity. The Responsive Neurostimulation (RNS®) system (Neuropace, Mountain View, CA, USA) is an FDA-approved implantable device designed for this purpose. Objective: One of the challenges of the brain machine interface devices is the potential for implanted neurostimulator devices to induce progressive gliosis, apart from that associated with the minimal trauma at implantation. Gliosis has the potential to alter impedances over time, thereby affecting the clinical efficacy of these devices, and also poses a challenge to the prospects of in vivo repositioning of depth electrodes. We present a clinical case with 3-year follow-up and pathology. Methods: Single-case, retrospective review within a randomized trial with specific minimum follow-up and impedance measurements. Results: Impedance changes in the surface electrode over time were observed. Surgical pathological findings revealed significant gliosis in the leptomeninges of the cortices. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, long-term impedance recordings from a surface electrode associated with pathologic findings of gliosis at the Neuropace device-tissue interface in a patient who was enrolled in the multicenter RNS System Pivotal Clinical Investigation. Further study is required to elucidate the temporal relationship of pathological findings over time. Impedance changes were more complex than can be explained by a progressive or transient pathological mechanism. Further effort is required to elucidate the relationship between impedance change and seizure event capture.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.