El estreñimiento es un motivo frecuente de consulta con el pediatra. Como síntoma el estreñimiento puede deberse a diversas causas en términos de frecuencia, naturaleza y gravedad. El estreñimiento puede ser de origen médico o quirúrgico o bien idiopático. Las etiologías quirúrgicas están representadas principalmente por la enfermedad de Hirschsprung. Este es el diagnóstico diferencial principal a pesar de ser 50 veces menos frecuente que el estreñimiento idiopático o funcional. La mejor manera de establecer un diagnóstico es la realización de una historia clínica y una exploración física detalladas con inclusión de la exploración anal. En la mayoría de los casos no se precisan otras exploraciones y todas las investigaciones se han realizado en conformidad con las consideraciones clínicas.

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