The rate of Caesarean-section delivery in the United States has increased by 60% from 1996 through to 2013 and now accounts for > 30% of births [CDC, 2017]. The purpose of this review is to present the current understanding of both the microbial risk factors that increase the likelihood of a Caesarean-section delivery and the microbial dysbiosis that is thought to result from the Caesarean section. We provide examples of research into the impact of early-life microbial dysbiosis on infant development and long-term health outcomes, as well as consider the efficacy and the long-term implications of microbiome-based therapies to mitigate this dysbiosis. The steep rise in the Caesarean-section delivery rate makes it imperative to understand the potential of microbiota modulation for the treatment of dysbiosis.

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