Introduction: This randomized controlled trial study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) diet intervention by the registered dietitians. Methods: Eighty-two people living with HIV (PLHIV) with dyslipidemia were randomly allocated to the intervention group as well as another 82 PLHIV with dyslipidemia to the control group. Participants in the intervention group were instructed to meet the registered dietitians every 2 weeks at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 (a totally of 12 weeks) to receive individual medical nutrition therapy according to the TLC diet principles, while the participants in the control group only received routine health care service. Results: Triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol of the intervention group were significantly lower than those of the control group at the endpoint (p < 0.05). In addition, these biomarkers and C-reactive protein of the intervention group were significantly lower when compared with their baseline (p < 0.05). The overall dietary habits of participants in the intervention group were significantly improved at the end of the study (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The medical nutrition therapy intervention based on the TLC diet is effective in improving blood lipid profiles among PLHIV with dyslipidemia.

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