Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a 3-day high-carbohydrate diet (≥75% of total calories) on body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: Twenty non-obese young men (age 22.7 ± 2.6 years, BMI 23.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2) completed the study. Two DXA tests were performed for the measurement of total body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage as well as total, appendicular and central lean body mass (LBM) before and after a high-carbohydrate diet for 3 days. In addition, the participants completed a food diary during the 3-day high-carbohydrate diet to determine the mean percentage of carbohydrates consumed from total kilocalories. Results: The mean percentage of carbohydrate intake over 3 days was 83.7 ± 8.4%. Our results showed a significant increase in total body weight, BMI as well as total and appendicular LBM after the high-carbohydrate diet (p < 0.01). In addition, we observed a strong tendency for lower body fat percentage values after the intervention (p = 0.05). No significant difference was observed for central LBM. Conclusions: These results indicate that the effect of an acute high carbohydrate diet seems to affect body composition values using DXA, such as total LBM. This study may lead to the need of standardizing a diet prior to using DXA.

Despres JP, Lemieux I, Bergeron J, Pibarot P, Mathieu P, Larose E, Rodes-Cabau J, Bertrand OF, Poirier P: Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008;28:1039-1049.
Katzmarzyk PT, Gagnon J, Leon AS, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Rao DC, Bouchard C: Fitness, fatness, and estimated coronary heart disease risk: the heritage family study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:585-590.
Lau DCW, Douketis JD, Morrison KM, Hramiak IM, Sharma AM, Ur E: 2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children [summary]. CMAJ 2007;176:S1-S13.
Lee SY, Gallagher D: Assessment methods in human body composition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2008;11:566-572.
Plank LD: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and body composition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2005;8:305-309.
Heymsfield SB, Wang Z, Baumgartner RN, Ross R: Human body composition: advances in models and methods. Annu Rev Nutr 1997;17:527-558.
Lohman TG, Chen Z: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; in Heymsfield SB, Lohman TG, Wang Z (eds): Human Body Composition: Methods and Findings. Champaign, Human Kinetics, 2005, pp 63-77.
Bussau VA, Fairchild TJ, Rao A, Steele P, Fournier PA: Carbohydrate loading in human muscle: an improved 1 day protocol. Eur J Appl Physiol 2002;87:290-295.
Hawley JA, Schabort EJ, Noakes TD, Dennis SC: Carbohydrate-loading and exercise performance. An update. Sports Med 1997;24:73-81.
Rauch LH, Rodger I, Wilson GR, Belonje JD, Dennis SC, Noakes TD, Hawley JA: The effects of carbohydrate loading on muscle glycogen content and cycling performance. Int J Sport Nutr 1995;5:25-36.
Jeukendrup AE: Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling. J Sports Sci 2011;29(suppl 1):S91-S99.
Olsson KE, Saltin B: Variation in total body water with muscle glycogen changes in man. Acta Physiol Scand 1970;80:11-18.
Pietrobelli A, Formica C, Wang Z, Heymsfield SB: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition model: review of physical concepts. Am J Physiol 1996;271(6 pt 1):E941-E951.
Pietrobelli A, Wang Z, Formica C, Heymsfield SB: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: fat estimation errors due to variation in soft tissue hydration. Am J Physiol 1998;274(5 pt 1):E808-E816.
St-Onge MP, Wang Z, Horlick M, Wang J, Heymsfield SB: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry lean soft tissue hydration: independent contributions of intra- and extracellular water. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004;287:E842-E847.
Testolin CG, Gore R, Rivkin T, Horlick M, Arbo J, Wang Z, Chiumello G, Heymsfield SB: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: analysis of pediatric fat estimate errors due to tissue hydration effects. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2000;89:2365-2372.
Drenowatz C, Eisenmann JC: Validation of the sensewear armband at high intensity exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2011;111:883-887.
Johannsen DL, Calabro MA, Stewart J, Franke W, Rood JC, Welk GJ: Accuracy of armband monitors for measuring daily energy expenditure in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42:2134-2140.
Mackey DC, Manini TM, Schoeller DA, Koster A, Glynn NW, Goodpaster BH, Satterfield S, Newman AB, Harris TB, Cummings SR; Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study: Validation of an armband to measure daily energy expenditure in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2011;66:1108-1113.
Mignault D, St-Onge M, Karelis AD, Allison DB, Rabasa-Lhoret R: Evaluation of the portable healthwear armband: a device to measure total daily energy expenditure in free-living type 2 diabetic individuals. Diabetes Care 2005;28:225-227.
Ryan J, Gormley J: An evaluation of energy expenditure estimation by three activity monitors. Eur J Sport Sci 2013;13:681-688.
St-Onge M, Mignault D, Allison DB, Rabasa-Lhoret R: Evaluation of a portable device to measure daily energy expenditure in free-living adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:742-749.
Welk GJ, McClain JJ, Eisenmann JC, Wickel EE: Field validation of the mti actigraph and bodymedia armband monitor using the ideea monitor. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:918-928.
Wetten AA, Batterham M, Tan SY, Tapsell L: Relative validity of 3 accelerometer models for estimating energy expenditure during light activity. J Phys Act Health 2014;11:638-647.
Pourhassan M, Schautz B, Braun W, Gluer CC, Bosy-Westphal A, Muller MJ: Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain. Eur J Clin Nutr 2013;67:446-454.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.