Background/Aims: Little is known about how visceral adiposity and apolipoprotein CIII in apoB-containing lipoproteins influence atherogenic lipids profiles. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships of visceral adiposity and apoC-III in apoB-containing lipoproteins (LpB:C-III) with lipoprotein lipids in circulating plasma. Methods: A subgroup of 46 men (n = 20, aged 29.1–33.4 years) and women (n = 26, aged 29.1–33.8 years) were recruited from an ongoing population study at our institution. Anthropometric variables including weight, height, and waist circumference were measured using standard procedures, and body mass index was calculated (kg/m2). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Plasma apolipoproteins, lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured after an overnight fasting. Results: The men had a significantly higher waist circumference, glucose, and TC/HDL-C ratio, while the women had a significantly higher HDL-C and apoA-I. In particular, this is the first study to report that VAT and LpB:C-III were independent predictors in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations. Conclusion: The relations of plasma triglyceride concentration with VAT and LpB:C-III suggest that information on VAT and apoC-III in apoB-containing lipoproteins may provide additional information on the atherogenic lipid profiles.