Background: Vitamin A deficiency is still a major health problem mostly affecting people in developing countries. It contributes to increased mortality and morbidity through current infection. In Cameroon, it is a public health problem mostly in the northern part where palm oil, which is a principal source of provitamin A in the south of the country, is not consumed. Aim: We carried out this research to discover the relationship between vitamins (A and E) and blood lipids in a normal rural population living in vitamin A-deficiency area. Design: A cross-sectional study with 81 healthy volunteers (40 men and 41 women) aged 3–61 (mean 18.32 ± 1.63) years and living in two neighboring villages (Doyan and Larao) in the northern part of Cameroon, where previous studies revealed a prevalence of vitamin A deficiency of 33.3%. Methods: Serum concentrations of vitamins A and E were measured by fluorometric methods. Serum cholesterol and lipids were assayed by enzymatic methods. Results: The mean ± standard error for vitamin A and E were 15.09 ± 0.82; 526.99 ± 29.57 µg/100 ml, respectively. The concentrations of the serum parameters analyzed were similar for both sexes, whereas the atherogenic ration of cholesterol (ARC) was significantly (p < 0.036) higher in women. Serum lipids (total lipids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and phospholipids) correlated with vitamins A and E (p < 0.05). Vitamins A and E were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.42, p < 0.001). Age was positively associated with vitamin A (r = 0.42, p < 0.001) and vitamin E (r = 0.29, p < 0.01). Deficiency of vitamins A and E constitutes a public health problem with more than 56% of the subjects having low levels of these vitamins, while subjects tested had a low risk for cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: In this population we noticed normal lipid levels and vitamin A deficiency probably resulting from diets poor in provitamin A.

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