To estimate the effect of possible goitre prophylactic measures on the intake of iodine among population groups, simulation studies, based on the first Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, were carried out. Iodine intake figures and prevalence of low intakes were calculated after fictively iodizing either bread, a combination of industrial products, milk and dairy products (without cheese) or margarine and shortenings. In addition, the effect of iodizing both bread and cheese or bread + biscuits + rusks was calculated. The simulated iodization of different products increased mean calculated iodine intakes by up to 45% and gave a reduction of 60-90% in the prevalence of iodine intakes below 100 µg/day. The maximum acceptable intake of 1 mg iodine per day was never reached by any subject (average of 2 days). It is concluded that it is possible to increase substantially the mean iodine intake of the Dutch population and to decrease the prevalence of low iodine intakes without a clear risk of exceeding the maximum acceptable daily oral iodine intake.