Introduction: Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis, associated with significant morbidity, modality transition, and mortality. Here, we provide an update on the national burden of this significant complication, highlighting trends in demographics, treatment practices, and in-hospital outcomes of PDAP from 2016 to 2020. Methods: Utilizing a national all-payer dataset of hospitalizations in the USA, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of PDAP from 2016 to 2020. We analyzed demographic, clinical, and hospital-level data, focusing on in-hospital mortality, PD catheter removal, length of stay, and healthcare expenses. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for demographic and clinical covariates was employed to identify risk factors associated with adverse outcomes. Results: There was a stable burden of annual PDAP admissions from 2016 to 2020. Healthcare expenditures associated with PDAP were high, totaling over USD 75,000 per admission. Additionally, our data suggest geographic inconsistencies in treatment patterns, with treatment at western and teaching hospitals associated with increased rates of catheter removal relative to northeastern and non-teaching centers and a mean cost of nearly USD 55,000 more in Western states compared to Midwest states. 23.2% of episodes resulted in the removal of the PD catheter. Risk factors associated with adverse outcomes included older age, higher Charlson comorbidity index scores, peripheral vascular disease, and the need for vasopressors. Conclusion: PDAP is a major cause of mortality among PD patients, and there is a vital need for future studies to examine the impact of hospital location and teaching status on PDAP outcomes, which can inform treatment practices and resource allocation.

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