Introduction: While Asian and Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) patients have a high prevalence of kidney disease risk factors, there are sparse data examining their end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) outcomes. As Hawaii has high representation of Asian and NHOPI individuals, we compared their ESKD outcomes based on residence in the mainland USA versus Hawaii/Pacific Islands (PIs). Materials and Methods: Using United States Renal Data System data, we examined the impact of geographic residence in the mainland versus Hawaii/PIs on race-mortality associations among incident ESKD patients transitioning to dialysis over January 1, 2000–December 31, 2016 using Cox regression. We examined likelihood of post-dialysis kidney transplantation using Cox models and cumulative incidence curves. Results: Compared with White patients in the mainland, Asian and NHOPI patients in the mainland had lower mortality: adjusted HRs (95% CIs) 0.67 (0.66–0.67) and 0.72 (0.70–0.73), respectively. When examining Asian and NHOPI patients in Hawaii/PIs, survival benefit was attenuated in Asian and diminished to the null in NHOPI patients (ref: mainland White patients). Cumulative incidence curves comparing Asian, NHOPI, and White patients showed Asian and NHOPI patients in the mainland had the highest likelihood of transplantation, whereas NHOPI and Asian patients in Hawaii/PIs had the lowest likelihood. Conclusion: In the mainland, Asian and NHOPI patients had lower mortality versus White patients, whereas in Hawaii/PIs, this survival benefit was diminished in Asian and mitigated in NHOPI patients. NHOPI and Asian patients in Hawaii/PIs had less transplantation versus those in the mainland. Further research is needed to uncover factors contributing to differential ESKD outcomes among Asian and NHOPI patients across geographic residence.

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