Background: Desidustat (ZYAN1) is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI) that stimulates erythropoiesis. Stabilizing HIF via PHI is developing as a new therapeutic approach to treat anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD). This trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of Desidustat in adult CKD patients with anemia, who were not on dialysis. Methods: This was a Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, 6-week, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, safety and efficacy study. A total of 117 eligible patients were randomized to 4 arms: 100, 150, 200 mg, or placebo. The investigational product was administered every alternate day for 6 weeks in fasting conditions. The primary endpoint was change in hemoglobin (Hb) from baseline to week 6. Results: Baseline demographics were well balanced among all the treatment arms. In the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population, a mean Hb increase of 1.57, 2.22, and 2.92 g/dL in Desidustat 100, 150, and 200 mg arms, respectively, was observed post 6 weeks treatment. The responder rate (≥1 g/dL increase) was 66% in 100 mg, 75% in 150 mg, and 83% in 200 mg treatment arms, in the mITT population. Eighteen patients had at least one treatment emergent adverse event (TEAE), and 5 patients reported at least one drug-related mild TEAE. No death or serious adverse event was reported during the trial. Conclusion: There was dose-related increase in Hb across all doses compared to placebo in mITT and per-protocol populations. Desidustat also increased pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax and AUC in dose-related manner. There was no significant change in vital signs, electrocardiographic parameters, or safety laboratory values. Clinical Trial Registration Number CTRI/2017/05/008534 (registered on May 11, 2017).