Background: In patients with cast nephropathy and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis, the reduction of serum free light chains (FLC) using chemotherapy and intensive hemodialysis (IHD) with a high cut-off filter may improve renal and patient outcomes. We evaluated the effectiveness of a combination of chemotherapy and IHD with an adsorbent polymethylmethacrylate membrane (IHD-PMMA) on renal recovery and survival. Methods: A single-center retrospective cohort-study was conducted. Between 2007 and 2014, patients with dialysis-dependent acute cast nephropathy treated with chemotherapy and IHD-PMMA were included. Patients had six 6-h hemodialysis sessions a week, until predialysis serum FLC fell below 200 mg/L, for a maximum of 3 weeks. Primary outcomes were renal recovery, defined as dialysis independence, and survival. Results: Seventeen patients were included, all with stage 3 AKI. All received chemotherapy, mostly based on bortezomib and steroids (88%). Twelve patients (71%) achieved renal recovery, usually within 60 days (92%). At 3 months, the overall hematological response rate was 57%; hematological response was maintained for at least 2 years in 86% of responders. At 6, 12, and 24 months, 76, 75, and 62% of patients were alive, respectively. Higher reduction in involved FLC by day 12 (p = 0.022) and day 21 (p = 0.003) was associated with renal recovery. Patients with FLC reduction rate >50% by day 21 experienced a lower mortality (hazard ratio 0.10, 95% CI 0.02–0.63). Conclusion: In patients with dialysis-dependent myeloma cast nephropathy, early FLC removal by IHD-PMMA combined with chemotherapy was associated with high rates of renal recovery and survival.