Background/Aims: Post-renal transplant recurrent glomerulonephritis (GN) contributes to allograft loss. Rituximab treatment has been used in a multidose strategy with variable efficacy and toxicity. We investigated a novel single-dose approach. Methods: A single center, retrospective, cohort study was conducted between January 1998 and April 2012 among renal allograft recipients with recurrent GN treated with rituximab (cases) or without (controls). The primary outcome was complete response (CR, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UP/C) <0.3). Secondary outcomes included partial response (PR >50% reduction in UP/C), response relapse, treatment-response by GN type, acute rejection incidence, time to graft loss, and infection incidence. Results: The median dose of rituximab was 200 mg per patient. Of 20 rituximab cases and 13 controls, CR was achieved in eight (40%) versus four (31%), respectively (p = 0.72). Three subjects in each group achieved PR (p = 0.66). Response relapse was similar between the two groups (p = 0.47). Significantly more subjects with recurrent membranous nephropathy (MN) achieved CR with rituximab treatment (p = 0.029). Acute rejection was lower in the rituximab group versus controls (n = 0 vs. 4; p = 0.046). The mean time to graft loss was much later in the rituximab group (35 months, (95% CI 33-37)) versus controls (29 months, (95% CI 24-35)) at 36 months (p = 0.04). There was no infection increase in rituximab-treated subjects (p = 0.16). Conclusion: Single-dose rituximab for treatment of recurrent GN was associated with less subsequent rejection and longer time to graft loss without increased infection, but was no more effective than regimens not using rituximab at 36-months except those with recurrent membranous GN.

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