Background/Aims: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in the general population, may lead to end-stage renal disease, and is most frequently found among males. Familial clustering of kidney diseases has been observed. We aimed to study a potential association between the family history of myocardial infarction (MI) and renal dysfunction. Methods:22,297 males and 10,828 females, aged 33-60 years, from a population-based cohort study were studied. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was assessed by the CKD-EPI creatinine equation. Every participant filled in a self-administered questionnaire including family history. Heredity for MI was defined as mother or father having had MI and/or died from MI, and/or brother or sister having had MI. Binary logistic regression and multiple linear regression were used in the analyses. Results: Multiple linear regression revealed a significantly increased risk of renal dysfunction in those with a positive heredity for MI (the whole cohort p = 0.01, males p = 0.000, females p = 0.169). Binary logistic regression showed that males with heredity for MI with a mean age of 43 years have a 2 times higher risk (p = 0.02) of belonging to the group with GFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 compared to those without heredity. For the whole cohort the increased risk was 1.6 times (p = 0.07). There was no significant association for females (p = 0.88). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that a familial burden of MI is associated with renal dysfunction, in men, already in middle age. Genetic variants may underlie predisposition to CKD in those with heredity for MI.