Background: Information is limited regarding the outcomes of patients with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD) who develop dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury. Methods: 131 adult patients with advanced CKD who received emergent hemodialysis from January to June in 2002 were recruited and monitored for all-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease until the end of 2007. Results: Among patients investigated, 21 (16%) were successfully withdrawn from acute hemodialysis after an average of 8 sessions of dialysis therapy (range: 1–44). Multivariate analysis revealed that larger kidney size (odds ratio, OR = 1.755, p = 0.018), lower predialysis creatinine (OR = 0.722, p = 0.002), and non-diabetes (OR = 0.271, p = 0.037) were predictors for withdrawal. After 5 years, all patients in the non-withdrawal group remained on chronic dialysis, whereas only 8/21 (38%) patients in the withdrawal group developed end-stage renal disease. Cox’s analysis showed that age (hazard ratio, HR = 1.043, p < 0.0001), prerenal azotemia (HR = 1.040, p = 0.002), and adjusted propensity score for assigning to dialysis withdrawal (HR = 6.819, p = 0.008) were associated with mortality. Withdrawal from acute dialysis was not related to long-term mortality (p = 0.34). Conclusions: Among the advanced CKD patients, predictors of the successful weaning from acute dialysis were non-diabetes, larger kidney size and lower serum creatinine levels. The strategy of removal from emergent dialysis was not related to long-term mortality.

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