Aim: Icodextrin reduces glucose absorption from the peritoneal dialysate. We conducted this prospective, open-labeled, multicenter study to determine the effects of icodextrin on glycemic and lipid parameters in diabetic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) or automated PD. Methods: Patients were recruited from 15 institutions in Japan, and a total of 51 patients (15 women and 36 men, mean age: 59 ± 10 years, median duration of PD: 13 months) were enrolled. The patients were administered an overnight or daytime dwell of 1.5 or 2.0 l of 7.5% icodextrin-containing solution. At baseline and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the start of icodextrin, nonfasting blood was drawn for measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and serum lipids. Results: During icodextrin treatment, there was no change in overall HbA1C levels compared to baseline values; however, for those with baseline HbA1C ≧6.5% (n = 22), significant decreases in HbA1C were observed. Mean total/LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased significantly during icodextrin treatment, with greater decreases for patients with baseline total cholesterol ≧220 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≧120 mg/dl or triglycerides ≧150 mg/dl. HDL cholesterol did not differ at any time point; however, values for patients with baseline HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dl tended to increase with marginal significance. Conclusions: In the current study, switching from glucose-containing dialysis solution to icodextrin resulted in improved lipid profiles and possibly a favorable metabolic profile, particularly in patients with poor glycemic control. These hypotheses remain to be proven in controlled clinical trials.

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