Background/Aim: Recent studies have questioned whether new cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) are occurring. The aim of the present study was to find out whether new members with renal dysfunctions can be identified among family members of BEN patients from the Kolubara region. Methods: The study included 47 family members of 5 BEN patients on hemodialysis (HD) and 17 members of 3 non-BEN patients on HD. Their medical and epidemiological histories were taken, an objective survey made, and all persons were examined for global and tubular kidney function. Results: Seven BEN family members (2 with previously known BEN) had creatinine clearance (Ccr) below the 75th percentile rank according to sex and age. All non-BEN family members had normal Ccr and no evidence of previous renal disorders. Hypertension was found in 20 (43%) BEN and 6 (35%) non-BEN family members. No significant differences in the frequency of renal function disorders (proteinuria, α1-microglobulinuria, urine specific gravity, osmolality, functional excretion of sodium, tubular phosphate resorption) or anemia were found between the groups. Renal disorders were detected in 18 BEN family members without previously detected disease, 3 of whom fulfilled criteria for a diagnosis of BEN and another 2 for BEN-suspected persons. Conclusion: New cases of BEN are still arising among the affected families in the Kolubara region.

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