Objective: Methylglyoxal (MGO) in a heat-sterilized conventional PD solution may damage peritoneal cells directly and/or indirectly by producing advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). This study was conducted to (a) examine the acute effect of MGO on the peritoneum (including AGE formation) and (b) study the possible AGE suppressive effect of an anti-oxidant, sodium sulfite. Method: (1) Human serum albumin (HAS) was continuously incubated with MGO (50 mM) at 37°C for as long as 14 days and the fluorescence intensity (FI) was determined (em. 440, ex. 370). (2) Three types of test solutions – (i) saline; (ii) MGO (20 mM), and (iii) MGO with sodium sulfite (30 mM) – were administered intraperitoneally to 8-week-old rats once a day for 5 consecutive days. The parietal peritoneum was examined macroscopically on the 6th day for immunostaining of anti-AGE antibodies. Result: (1) An increase in FI of HSA was observed as a function of the incubation period in the MGO solution. (2) Prominent hypervascularity and intense immunostaining of anti-AGE Ab were noted in MGO-treated rats, whereas the macroscopic alterations were suppressed in the rats that had been treated with sodium sulfite. Conclusion: MGO-induced hypervascularity and AGE formation in the peritoneum, as well as macroscopic alterations were suppressed by sodium sulfite. This may indicate that there is a risk of MGO causing a peritoneal injury and that the therapeutic potential of an anti-oxidant for this type of injury may exist.