The pathomorphological and clinical findings were investigated in 10 cases of drug-induced hypersensitivity nephritis. Hypersensitivity due to drugs was strongly suggested by the lymphocyte stimulation test in all patients. The offending drugs included penicillin, cephem derivatives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and minocycline. All patients developed acute renal failure shortly after administration of regular doses of the drugs. Allergic symptoms plus a raised level of serum IgE or eosinophilia were seen in 7 patients. The remaining 3 patients receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had no allergic symptoms, but developed severe proteinuria. Eight patients without severe glomerular damage recovered after withdrawal of the offending drugs and temporal dialysis and/or steroid therapy. Renal biopsies revealed tubulitis and tubular epithelial degeneration with interstitial edema as the common characteristic findings. Granulomatous lesions were occasionally observed. Multinucleated giant cells found in the granulomas were positive for LN-3 which is compatible with HLA-DR antigen. The glomeruli appeared normal, except in 2 cases in whom crescentic glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy were seen. Our study suggests that the lymphocyte stimulation test and renal biopsy are the most useful means to confirm the diagnosis and provides further evidence for the participation of cell-mediated immunity in the pathogenesis of drug-induced hypersensitivity nephritis.