Introduction: Some treatments are associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation (CMVRA) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, no reports exist on the association between elotuzumab and CMVRA. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of CMVRA in patients with MM who received elotuzumab therapy. Methods: The medical records of 85 patients who underwent elotuzumab therapy were included in the retrospective analysis for CMV positivity. Results: Thirty patients were tested for CMV antigenemia during elotuzumab therapy, and 16 were positive for CMV antigenemia; the cumulative incidence rate of CMVRA 6 months after elotuzumab initiation was 18.4%. The history of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) was significantly more common in the CMVRA group (31.2%) than that of the group without CMVRA (8.7%). However, even among patients who did not undergo allo-HSCT, the cumulative incidence rate of CMVRA at 6 months was 15.1%. During CMVRA, the symptoms included fever in 8 cases, while retinitis was observed in 1 case. Five patients required antiviral therapy and CMV antigenemia resolved in all but 1 case. Conclusion: Although the patient population was heterogeneous, CMVRA cannot be underestimated during elotuzumab therapy, and evaluation of CMVRA, especially in symptomatic cases, is clinically important.

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