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Introduction: Major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II)-mediated antigen presentation contributes to the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB5 is an MHC-II molecule and this study aims to investigate its role and mechanisms in ITP development. Methods: Guinea pig anti-mouse platelet (PLT) serum-induced ITP mice received tail vein injection of HLA-DRB5 overexpressing adenoviral vector/immune receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (IREM-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb). PLT count changes in mice blood were assessed by a hematology analyzer. MHC-II/CD80/CD86 expression in mice blood was measured by quantitative real-time-PCR and immunofluorescence assay. CD8+ T-cell proportion in mice blood was detected by flow cytometry. Results: HLA-DRB5 overexpression exacerbated PLT reduction since the 5th day of the establishment of ITP mice model and enhanced MHC-II/CD80/CD86 expression upregulation as well as CD8+ T-cell ratio elevation in the blood of ITP mice, while its effects were reversed by IREM-1 mAb. Conclusion: HLA-DRB5 overexpression upregulates MHC-II-mediated antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells, thus lowering PLT count in the ITP mice model.

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