Chronic myelogenous leukemia at blast crisis with a T-cell phenotype (T-ALL CML-BC) at diagnosis, without any prior history of CML is extremely rare. After the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), CML patients have a median survival comparable to general population and accelerated/blast crisis are rarely encountered. Most CML patients (80%) transform into acute myeloid leukemia and the rest into B-ALL. Anecdotal cases of Ph+ T-ALL, either de novo or in the context of CML-BC have been reported. Left shift in the blood, the presence of splenomegaly/extramedullary infiltration and the occurrence of BCR::ABL1 rearrangement in both the blastic population, as well as in the myeloid cell compartment are key points in differentiating de novo Ph+ T-ALL from T-ALL CML-BC. The latter is a rare entity, characterized by extramedullary disease, p210 transcript and clonal evolution. Lack of preceding CML does not rule out the diagnosis of T-ALL CML-BC. Prompt TKI treatment with ALL-directed therapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation may offer long-term survival in this otherwise poor prognosis entity. In this paper, we describe a patient with T-ALL CML-BC at presentation, still alive 51 months after diagnosis and we offer a review of the literature on this rare subject. All clinical and laboratory features are provided in order to distinguish de novo Ph+ T-ALL from T-ALL CML-BC, underscoring the prognostic and therapeutic significance of such a differentiation.

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