We describe two patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) who suffered cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related small intestinal perforations during the course of chemotherapy. Surgical specimens from both patients revealed his-tologic evidence of occlusive vasculitis and tissue destruction caused by CMV-affected cells in the submucosa and muscular walls, that may have played an important role in the pathogenesis of these perforations. Although such intestinal perforations are rare complications in NHL patients, CMV infection should be recognized as a primary etiological factor in acute abdominal crises when treating NHL patients with pharmaceutical agents including steroids. Emergency surgery and the anti-CMV agent, ganciclovir, would improve the prognoses of such patients.

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